edge.unplugged

163 science-backed tips to finally lose weight for good

If you want to see the best tips to lose weight in one place, then you’ll LOVE this guide. 

I have personally reviewed thousands of studies over 23 years and discovered 163 proven weight loss tips.

You won’t find any old wives’ tales or things some “celebrity” swears by. Just proven tips that actually work.

Now, you obviously can’t do everything on this list, or even close to it! 

The idea is to give you a toolkit of steps to help you lose weight for good.

No more trying and failing, no more yo-yo dieting…

Let’s start by looking at my top 10 favourite tips to lose weight.

My top 10 tips to lose weight

1. More of this transforms your body into a fat burning machine:

2. Vitamin D, the king of supplements:

Vitamin D may well be the best supplement for health.

Having adequate vitamin D levels has been linked with a range of health benefits from preventing obesity, heart disease and Parkinson’s disease to foetal brain development and blood sugar regulation.

When it comes to weight loss a study6 showed that vitamin D can quadruple your results.

Researchers gave people 3,000iu of vitamin D a day and compared their weight loss with a control group.

The vitamin D group lost 5.4kg (11.9lbs) compared to only 1.2kg (2.6lbs) in the people not taking vitamin D.

Although this study used 3,000iu per day, research suggests that the best dosage is 70-80iu per kg/2.2lbs of body weight a day7.

So, for a 50kg (110lb) woman this would be 3,500iu to 4,000iu per day.

Vitamin D supplements are relatively cheap but you do need to be careful to ensure that you take a specific type.

It generally comes in one of two forms, D2 and D3. D3 is the most commonly available and is the type that our bodies produce. 

It’s the most effective so be sure to choose this type.

3. Have a bigger breakfast:

Eating a bigger breakfast can make you lose 2.5 times more weight.

In a study8 that had people eat bigger breakfasts and lighter dinners participants lost 8.7kg (19.1lbs) over 12 weeks compared to only 3.6kg (7.9lbs) in people who ate a normal breakfast and dinner.

Both groups ate the same amount of calories so these results are very impressive!

The only difference was that they flipped breakfast and dinner sizes.

The “big breakfast” group ate 700 calories for breakfast and 200 calories for dinner whereas the “normal dinner” group ate 200 calories for breakfast and 700 calories for dinner.

4. Exercise in the morning:

If you can, exercise in the morning to lose more weight.

Exercising in the morning can boost your metabolism

A study9 compared people who exercised in the morning with those who exercised in the afternoon/evening. 

It found that the morning exercisers lost 243% more weight (7.2% compared to 2.1%).

5. Replace your usual oil with olive oil:

Or more precisely “extra virgin” olive oil.

This is important.

Not all olive oil is created equal. 

Extra virgin is by far the best type as it has been extracted by mechanical crushing and not through the use of chemicals.

It is best used raw in salads and dressings or drizzled over food after cooking. 

It can be used to cook with but only at low temperatures.

Cooking at higher temperatures can damage its structure and change it from being healthy to unhealthy.

Now we’ve got that out of the way let’s look at how it can help us lose weight.

A study10 has shown that adding 25ml (just less than 2tbsp) of extra virgin olive oil a day can increase your weight loss by 80%

People who followed this advice lost 2.4kg (5.3lbs) in two months compared to only 1.3kg (2.9lbs) in people who didn’t.

One of the (many) reasons extra virgin olive oil helps us lose weight is that it’s smell suppresses our appetites which can lead to us to eat up to 176 calories fewer a day11.

6. Eggs:

Eggs can be a great aid to lose weight, particularly if you eat them at breakfast.

A study12 showed that people who ate eggs for breakfast went on to eat up to 300 fewer calories at lunch and dinner than people who had either cornflakes, toast and orange juice or a croissant and orange juice.

This sort of calorie reduction will likely lead to large weight loss.

In fact, a study13 that compared people eating a breakfast of two eggs with others who ate bagels (which contained the same calories) found the egg group had a 61% larger reduction in BMI, lost 65% more weight, had a 34% larger reduction in their waistlines and a 16% greater reduction in body fat %.

Note: BMI stands for Body Mass Index, a measure that uses our weight and height to give a number. 

You can calculate you’re here:

Supplied by BMI Calculator UK

7. Curcumin:

Curcumin is a component of the spice turmeric that has potent beneficial effects in our body.

When it comes to weight loss curcumin appears to be very effective. 

In one study14 people were put on a diet for 30 days. They were then given 1,600mg of curcumin a day for another 30 days.

In the first month they lost 1.6kg (3.5lbs) but in the second month they lost another 4.1kg (9lbs).

If you want to take curcumin make sure you go for a supplement that also contains something called piperine. 

Curcumin isn’t easily absorbed by our body but the addition of piperine increases absorption by up to 2,000%15.

8. Dim the lights:

A study16 at Cornell University looked at the effects of softening lighting on eating patterns.

It found that softer lights caused people to eat 18% or 174 calories less (775 calories instead of 949).

This sort of reduction can soon add up to a significant calorie reduction which will help you to lose weight.

9. Declutter your eating environment:

A messy room can have a massive impact on your food choices.

Don’t believe it?

In a study17 where people were asked to choose between an apple and chocolate in either a messy room or a tidy room researchers found that people in messy rooms were 235% more likely to choose chocolate.

10. Keep a food diary:

This is another hack that can make you lose weight without trying.

It has been shown18 that keeping a daily food diary causes people to lose weight (2.3kg (5lbs) in 3 months) without taking any other steps.

Where people are trying to lose weight keeping a daily food diary can double weight loss19.

But you need to be consistent

Another study20 showed that people who kept a food diary at least 6 days a week lost almost twice as much weight as people who only kept the diary for 1 day a week.

Drink yourself thin

1. Drinking this dissolves body fat:

3 cups of green tea a day can lead to extra weight loss of between 2.5kg and 3.3kg (5.5lbs and 7lbs)21 .

2. If you don’t like green tea, drink coffee:

Better yet, drink both. Coffee can increase the amount of calories you burn by up to 13%. 

That’s about 260 calories a day for women and 325 calories a day for men22 .

3. Or go for black tea:

Black tea often gets overshadowed by green tea but it has weight loss benefits too.

It appears to increase weight loss in different ways.

First, it increases the levels of good bacteria23 in our guts which can boost weight loss24 (and make us healthier generally).

It is also high in a type of antioxidant called “flavone” and these seem to promote weight loss.

For example, a large study found that people with the highest intake of flavones had much lower BMIs than people with the lowest intake25 .

Just drinking 3 cups of black tea each day for 3 months can shrink your waistline by 1.88cm (0.75”)26.

4. Quit alcohol to keep the weight off:

Alcoholic drinks are empty calories that your body is more likely to store as fat. 

To help lose weight and keep it off you should consider limiting the amount you drink.

Surprisingly, alcohol does not seem to affect weight loss or weight gain in the short term although a study27 did find that alcohol can cause you to eat 384 calories extra a day.

It does, however, appear to have a significant impact long term.

For example, one study28 looked compared the weight loss of drinkers and non-drinkers and found that non-drinkers lost 38% more weight in the long term.

5. Drink more whole milk:

Drinking whole milk is strongly associated with lower body weight.

Drinking milk can help you lose weight

For example, people who consume the highest amounts of high-fat dairy are the least likely to become overweight29 .

Another study has shown that high-fat dairy products are linked to a 48% lower risk of having excess belly fat30.

There’s also evidence31 that people who consume the highest amount of dairy lose 61% more weight than people who consume the lowest (5.3kg (11.7lbs) compared to 3.3kg (7.3lbs)).

6. Ditch the sugary drinks:

Would you eat 10 teaspoons of sugar? 

Probably not, but that’s how much sugar is found in a typical can of soda.

And it seems that “liquid sugar” is more problematic than “solid sugar”.

For example, a study32 gave participants either 450 calories a day of jelly beans or 450 calories of sugary drink and found that the jelly bean group naturally compensated by consuming 450 calories fewer each day but the sugary drink group did not.

This leads to massive additional calorie consumption making nearly impossible to lose weight.

7. Ditch the fruit juice too:

Fruit juice is not a substitute for eating whole fruits.

Whilst they contain many of the vitamins, minerals and other nutrients they do not provide the range of nutrients or the levels found in whole fruit.

One reason for this is that edible skins and pulp are typically removed during the juicing process and it is in these where many nutrients are found.

Removal of the skins and pulp also has other negative effects: 

It takes away most of the fibre which means that fruit juice is less filling than an equivalent size piece of fruit and results in more of the fruit sugars being stored as fat because the fibre is not present to slow down absorption.

In fact, it has been shown33 that drinking fruit juice increases the risk of developing diabetes whereas eating whole fruit actually lowers the risk!

There’s also the issue of many fruit juices not being made from 100% fruit and containing unhealthy additives.

When it comes to body weight, one study34 has shown that you’re 50% more likely to be overweight by having juice at breakfast.

But, if you drink water you’re 40% less likely to be obese.

8. Diet drinks are no better:

A study of 2,126 people found those that regularly consume diet drinks have larger waistlines35.

It appears that our brains may be tricked by the sweet taste which causes your body to trigger similar reactions to drinking sugary drinks.

The same study showed, for example, that you’re more likely to have high blood sugar and high blood pressure if you drink diet drinks.

They have also been found to negatively affect gut bacteria which, as we have seen, can cause weight gain36.

9. Try kefir:

Kefir is a fermented milk drink that is traditional in the Middle East. 

If the description “fermented milk” sounds disgusting, don’t be put off. It is delicious, kind of like a fizzy yogurt drink.

Kefir is low calorie and loaded with good bacteria and other substances that have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic and immune-boosting properties37.

It can also help you lose weight.

A study38 had people drink four servings of kefir a day whilst eating a normal amount of calories.

After 8 weeks they had lost much more weight, had much greater reductions in their BMI and reduced their waistlines more than people who didn’t drink it.

Eat more of these

10. More of this transforms your body into a fat burning machine:

11. Eat things proven to fill you up:

The Satiety Index is a list of how filling foods are

Eat more foods with a high SI (150+) and fewer foods with lower SIs44.

This will help make you feel fuller for longer, consume fewer calories and make it easier to lose weight.

Food

Bakery

White bread
Croissant
Cake
Doughnuts
Cookies
Crackers

Snacks

Mars bar
Peanuts
Yoghurts
Chips
Ice cream
Jellybeans
Popcorn

Breakfast

Muesli
Sustain
Special K
Cornflakes
All bran
Porridge

Protein foods

Lentils
Cheese
Eggs
Baked beans
Beefsteak
Ling Fish

Carb foods

French fries
White pasta
Brown rice
White rice
Whole-grain bread
Wholemeal bread
Brown pasta
Potatoes

Fruits

Bananas
Grapes
Apples new role
Oranges

SI



100
47
65
68
120
127



70
84
88
91
96
118
154



100
112
116
118
151
209



133
146
150
168
176
225



116
119
132
138
154
157
188
323



118
162
197
202

12. Get more fibre:

Eating more fibre can be a very effective way to lose weight. 

And when you consider that 95% of Americans don’t get enough fibre45 it may explain why obesity is such an issue.

The term “superfood” is used far too often but fibre really does fall into this category.

A recent meta-analysis46 of 185 studies and 58 clinical trials, found that if 1,000 people increased their fibre intake to 25-29g a day, they’d prevent 13 deaths and 6 cases of heart disease.

When it comes to weight loss there’s a strong link between the amount of fibre you eat, your weight and the amount of body fat you carry.

For example, one study47 found that for each gram of fibre consumed body weight is reduced by 0.25kg (0.55lbs) and body fat decreases by 0.25%.

Add in just 10g of fibre each day and you’ll soon see the difference.

13. Eat fruit:

Whole fruit is low in calories but packed full of two key things that help us feel full: water48 and fibre49

When you feel fuller for longer you’ll consume fewer calories which will help you lose weight.

We’ll look at specific fruit that can help with weight loss below but eating fruit generally can have a significant effect on weight loss.

For example, a massive 24 year study50 involving 133,468 people found that higher fruit intake is associated with long term weight loss.

In other words, fruit helps you to lose weight and keep it off.

14. Eat half a grapefruit before meals:

Doing this can increase weight loss by 433%51.

And it can take 2.45cm (1”) off your waistline in 6 weeks52.

Sure, this isn’t going to be possible all the time, or even most of the time, but the more you do it, the greater the weight loss effect.

15. Red grapes:

Red grapes contain something that helps us burn fat

Grapes are packed with a powerful antioxidant called resveratrol which prevents new fat cells from being formed, stops your body turning carbs into fat, stimulates fat burning, increases your body temperature so you burn more calories and causes fat cells to die off53.

Not bad eh?!

16. Avocados:

Eating avocados is associated with a 33% lower risk of being overweight/obese and a 32% lower risk of having a large waistline54.

Eating avocado at meal times can make you feel 23% more satisfied and reduce your desire to eat in the 5 hours afterwards by 28%

They simply fill us up and reduce our desire to overeat55.

17. Apples:

Apples are packed full of fibre, contain few calories and numerous antioxidants. 

It’s no surprise, then, to learn they can help you to lose weight.

One study56 had people eat either 3 apples or 3 healthy oat cookies a day. 

The apples and cookies had similar levels of fibre and calories but after 12 weeks the apple eaters had lost 1.22kg (2.7lbs) but the oat group had no significant weight loss.

Another study57 used a similar protocol and after 10 weeks the apple group had lost 0.93kg (2lbs)

The oat eaters actually gained weight but the gain was small and not statistically significant.

18. Don’t discard the peel:

Apple peel contains much of the fibre and antioxidants but it also contains a chemical that may be particularly helpful to weight loss: ursolic acid.

Research is still at an early stage but there is evidence that ursolic acid can increase the amount of calories we burn by increasing levels of (good) brown fat and lean muscle58.

19. Berries:

Strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, blackberries and other berries are high in powerful antioxidants called flavonoids and studies59 show that people who eat them tend to lose weight over the long term.

There’s also evidence that the chemical that gives raspberries their smell (ketones) can speed up your metabolism and the breakdown of bodyfat60 61.

And there’s also data that suggests blueberries can improve insulin resistance (our ability to use food as energy rather than storing it as fat) and reduce bodyfat levels62.

20. Veggies shift the pounds:

We’ve all been told by our parents how important it is to eat our vegetables. 

It’s true! 

Veggies (excluding starchy vegetables like potatoes and corn) are more effective than any drug at improving our health and well-being.

Vegetables are key to successful weight loss

As with fruit, we’ll look at specific vegetables that can increase weight loss below, 

But let’s start with the evidence for overall veg intake.

One study63 found that eating 7 or more portions a day can reduce your risk of dying early from any cause by 42%.

For weight loss, the amount of veggies we eat is linked to our weight and our waistlines.

For example, it has been shown64 that eating more than 4 portions a day can reduce your risk of gaining weight by 27%.

Another study65 found that each serving of vegetables you eat each day can reduce your waist size by 0.36cm (0.14”).

The fact that only 1 in 10 Americans meet the recommended veg intake is another reason for an increasing overweight population66.

21. Eat kimchi:

Kimchi is a traditional Korean dish of spicy fermented cabbage. 

I love it but many people can’t stand it (and the description “fermented cabbage” hardly sells it!).

If you’re a fan you can eat more of it to boost your weight loss.

One study67 showed that eating kimchi with each meal led to significant reductions in BMI and body fat and weight loss of 1.5kg (3.3lbs).

Now, eating it at every meal would be tough (and boring) but the more you do it, the better your weight loss is likely to be.

22. Cauliflower:

Plain old cauliflower has been linked with weight loss over the long term68.

Cauliflower is low calorie yet packed full of nutrients that not only encourage weight loss but are shown to give us a whole host of benefits.

23. And other “cruciferous” veggies:

Cabbage, kale, cress, bok choi, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and other leafy greens are all examples of cruciferous vegetables.

These too have been shown to promote long term weight loss69.

Not only that, they contain cancer-fighting compounds70reduce inflammation71balance blood sugar72protect your heart73 and rebalance your hormones74.

24. Replace your usual oil with olive oil:

Or more precisely “extra virgin” olive oil.

This is important.

Not all olive oil is created equal. 

Extra virgin is by far the best type as it has been extracted by mechanical crushing and not through the use of chemicals.

It is best used raw in salads and dressings or drizzled over food after cooking. 

It can be used to cook with but only at low temperatures.

Cooking at higher temperatures can damage its structure and change it from being healthy to unhealthy.

Now we’ve got that out of the way let’s look at how it can help us lose weight.

A study75 has shown that adding 25ml (just less than 2tbsp) of extra virgin olive oil a day can increase your weight loss by 80%

People who followed this advice lost 2.4kg (5.3lbs) in two months compared to only 1.3kg (2.9lbs) in people who didn’t.

One of the (many) reasons extra virgin olive oil is good for weight loss is that it’s smell suppresses our appetites which can lead to us to eat up to 176 calories fewer a day76.

25. And use coconut oil for cooking at higher temperatures:

As with olive oil not all coconut oil is the same. 

Look for “virgin” oil to ensure you are getting a good product.

If it’s not virgin it is unhealthy and should be avoided.

Virgin coconut oil is almost entirely saturated fat but, to get all scientific, it’s a “medium chain triglyceride” which is much more easily absorbed by our bodies than “long chain triglycerides”, the typical saturated fat found in modern diets.

It has been used for centuries in cultures that have low levels of heart and other disease. 

One of the key benefits of coconut oil is that it is ideal for cooking at higher temperatures as it is extremely stable.

How does it help weight loss?

Firstly, the type of fats found in coconut oil can increase the amount of calories you burn each day by around 5% or 120 calories77.

Secondly, coconut oil can cause us to eat less, up to 256 fewer calories each day78.

Thirdly, it seems to burn belly fat in particular. 

In one study participants were given 30g of coconut oil a day for 4 weeks and shrunk their waistlines by 2.86cm (1.1”)79.

26. Eat more salmon:

This delicious fish has been shown to significantly boost weight loss.

Salmon is a great choice on a diet

A study80 gave people 3 x 150g (4.5oz) portions of salmon each week whilst they were trying to lose weight.

The salmon eaters lost nearly 1kg (2.2lbs) more over 2 months than the group that didn’t eat any fish.

If you go for salmon steer clear of the farmed, grain-fed variety.

Feeding salmon an artificial diet changes its fat profile from being healthy to unhealthy.

27. Cod is also good:

In the study mentioned above another group was given 3 x 150g (4.5oz) portions of cod each week.

This group lost 0.8kg (1.8lbs) more over 2 months than the no fish group.

Another study81 showed that eating five (150g/4.5oz) portions of cod each week can lead to an extra 1.7kg (3.8lbs) weight loss over 8 weeks.

Not only that, white fish has been shown to be more filling than either beef or chicken82.

28. Go spicy:

A large review83 of 90 different studies found that eating spicy foods can both reduce appetite and increase energy expenditure (calories burned) by 50 calories a day.

29. Have a bigger breakfast:

Eating a bigger breakfast can make you lose 2.5 times more weight.

In a study84 that had people eat bigger breakfasts and lighter dinners participants lost 8.7kg (19.1lbs) over 12 weeks compared to only 3.6kg (7.9lbs) in people who ate a normal breakfast and dinner.

Both groups ate the same amount of calories so these results are very impressive!

The only difference was that they flipped breakfast and dinner sizes.

The “big breakfast” group ate 700 calories for breakfast and 200 calories for dinner whereas the “normal dinner” group ate 200 calories for breakfast and 700 calories for dinner.

30. Eat more “water-rich” foods:

Foods with a high water content help to fill you up and make you eat less. 

You can lose weight without feeling hungry or craving unhealthy foods.

One study85 had people eat more water-rich food. 

This led to them losing 23% more weight despite the fact they actually ate more food.

Here are the top 10 water-rich foods:

Food

Cucumber
Tomatoes
Spinach
Mushrooms
Melon
Broccoli
Brussel sprouts
Oranges
Apples
Blueberries

Water Content

96%
95%
93%
92%
91%
90%
88%
86%
85%
84%

31. Nuts:

In a way nuts are the complete opposite of water-rich foods. 

Water-rich foods are low calorie and can help you lose weight. 

Nuts are high calorie but can also help you lose weight.

I could write a whole post on how the amount of calories you eat is not the only factor in losing weight. 

The quality and type of calories are also key.

Nuts are packed full of healthy fats that actually encourage weight loss.

One study86 showed people who eat at least two portions of nuts a week have a 31% lower chance of gaining weight compared to people who don’t eat them.

Even better, eating nuts can make you lose weight.

A study87 that had people eat 84g (3oz) of almonds a day lost 62% more weight, reduced their BMIs 62% more, lost 50% more off their waistlines and 56% more body fat.

32. Add some ginger:

Eating more of the spice ginger (either fresh or powdered) can speed up your weight loss efforts.

A large review88 that looked at the results of 14 studies concluded that eating more ginger can significantly decrease body weight and waist-to-hip ratio while at the same time significantly increasing levels of the good HDL-cholesterol.

Another study89 showed that 2g of powdered ginger dissolved in hot water and drunk before breakfast caused people to burn more calories and made them feel fuller for longer.

33. Yogurt:

Eating yogurt can significantly increase your weight loss.

One review80 found that eating yogurt regularly leads to lower BMIs, lower body weight/weight gain, smaller waistlines and less body fat.

Another study91 that gave people three servings of yogurt a day for 12 weeks found that it led to 61% greater fat loss.

However, this study used a specific brand of yogurt and was paid for by the manufacturer so we should bar this in mind.

Yogurt can be good for boosting weight loss but not quite that good.

34. Eggs:

Eggs are a good addition to a weight loss plan

Eggs can be a great aid to weight loss, particularly if you eat them at breakfast.

A study92 showed that people who ate eggs for breakfast went on to eat up to 300 fewer calories at lunch and dinner than people who had either cornflakes, toast and orange juice or a croissant and orange juice.

This sort of calorie reduction will likely lead to large weight loss.

In fact, a study93 that compared people eating a breakfast of two eggs with others who ate bagels (which contained the same calories) found the egg group had a 61% larger reduction in BMI, lost 65% more weight, had a 34% larger reduction in their waistlines and a 16% greater reduction in body fat %.

35. Season your food with black pepper:

Black pepper contains a substance called piperine which has been shown to have a number of weight loss benefits.

First, it may prevent your body forming new fat cells94 .

Second, it can boost your metabolism and the number of calories you burn as well as increasing the amount of fat your body burns95 .

Third, it can suppress your appetite and lead to eating fewer calories96.

36. Ditch refined grains and replace with whole grains:

Refined grains are found in things like white bread, pasta, rice, white flour and foods containing flour.

Without getting into too much detail, grains have three parts:

  • bran, the hard, outer shell that is packed full of fibre, minerals and antioxidants
  • endosperm, the middle layer that mostly contains carbs
  • germ, the inner layer full of vitamins, minerals, protein and other substances

Refined grains are grains that have had the germ and bran removed. 

Whole grains are grains that have all three intact.

In other words, refined grains have had virtually all of the good stuff removed.

Switching refined grains for whole grains can help you lose weight.

For example, in a study97 where people did this they lost 33% more weight (3.6kg (7.9lbs) compared to 2.7kg (5.9lbs) and lost 43% more body fat (3% compared to 2.1%).

So, get the majority of your grains as oats, wild rice, barley, brown rice, buckwheat, quinoa, popcorn, whole rye, millet, bulgur, sorghum, wheat berry and freekeh.

37. Add cinnamon to your food:

Cinnamon has been shown in several studies to improve your blood sugar levels, meaning less of the food you eat will be stored as fat.

There’s also evidence that it can cause weight loss.

A study98 that gave participants a concentrated form of cinnamon found that it decreased body fat by 0.7% while at the same time increased lean muscle by 1.1%.

Increasing (or maintaining) lean muscle is important as this is the engine that burns most of your calories.

Now, this study used a concentrated cinnamon extract so you won’t get quite the same results using powdered cinnamon. 

But, it is another simple thing you can do to help you lose weight more easily.

38. Chickpeas (aka garbanzo beans):

Call them what you like, they can be a great aid to weight loss.

In fact, if you eat chickpeas frequently you’re 53% less likely to be obese

Eating them can also lead to lower BMIs and smaller waistlines99 .

In an Australian study100 people were asked to continue their normal eating habits whilst adding in 104g (3.5oz) of chickpeas each day. 

After 12 weeks they stopped the chickpeas and continued as normal.

The researchers found that when eating the chickpeas they ate much less but felt more satisfied after meals.

Another study101 had people eat either 200g (1 cup) of chickpeas or two slices of toasted white bread before a meal. 

The chickpea group ate significantly less food that the bread group.

39. Lentils:

A review102 of 21 studies concluded that eating 130g (4oz) of lentils each day causes significant weight loss.

This backs up a previous study103 that found lentils decrease hunger by 31%.

40. Beans/legumes:

These are another great food to eat when you’re trying to lose weight. 

Like lentils and chickpeas, they’re packed with fibre, nutrients and protein.

Beans and legumes help to make you feel fuller for longer

One study104 gave participants 3 cups of legumes per week and checked in after 3 weeks and 6 weeks. 

After 3 weeks they had lost 2.3kg (5.1lbs) compared to only 0.9kg (2lbs) in the control group.

At 6 weeks they had lost 3.4kg (7.5lbs) compared to 1kg (2.2lbs).

41. Lentils, chickpeas, peas and beans in combination:

It appears that this combination is even more powerful in helping you lose weight. 

The whole is greater than the sum of the parts.

A study105 gave people four different servings of lentils, chickpeas, peas or beans a week for 8 weeks. 

Each serving was between 160 and 235g (5.5-8oz).

This group lost 47% more weight than a group that didn’t eat them (7.8kg (17.2lbs) compared to 5.3kg (11.7lbs)).

42. Eat more low “glycemic index” foods:

One of the major reasons people put on weight is because they eat too many refined carbs.

Refined carbs include bread, pasta, rice, flour and foods containing flour, white potatoes, sweets and processed foods. 

Refined carbs cause a big spike in your blood sugar levels and this causes more of what you eat to be stored as wobbly body fat.

If you avoid refined carbs you can not only avoid gaining weight you can actually lose weight.

Studies106 107 have shown that eating more lower glycemic index foods can lead to weight loss of 0.7-1.9kg (1.5-4.2lbs) over 5–10 weeks.

How can you ensure that you avoid sugar and refined carbs? 

By eating foods that are low (55 or less) or medium (56-69) on the glycemic index and avoiding anything that is high (70 or more) on the glycemic index. 

There are numerous websites that categorise foods by their glycemic index and they are a useful reference point. 

I use a brilliant database compiled by the University of Sydney, Australia that is available at www.glycemicindex.com/foodSearch.php.

Note: the glycemic index is a measure of how much different foods affect our blood sugar levels. 

Refined carbs tend to be high on the index.

43. Garlic:

Garlic has been shown to have a host of health benefits, from lowering inflammation and blood pressure to boosting your immune system and protecting against heart disease.

Garlic is good as part of a healthy diet

It can also be useful for weight loss.

A study108 that gave people 400mg of garlic powder a day for 15 weeks found it led to weight loss of 2kg (4.4lbs).

No changes were made to peoples’ diet or exercise habits so this is a decent result.

44. Tomato juice:

I’m not a big fan of most fruit juices (and neither is science) but tomato juice is an exception.

Yes, tomatoes are a fruit and unlike other juices the whole tomato is typically used to make it. 

That means all the goodness in the skin and the seeds is retained.

There’s also evidence that tomato juice can boost weight loss.

A study109 gave women a 280ml glass of tomato juice each day for two months. 

This step alone caused them to lose weight (1.6cm (0.6”) off their waistlines and weight loss of 0.5kg (1.1lbs)).

Not massive, but still good for such a simple step. 

Just make sure the juice doesn’t contain any added sugar,

Eat less of these

45. Your breakfast is making you fat:

Eating carbs at breakfast can mess with your blood sugar and can cause you to eat 600 calories more at lunch and dinner110

Go for a high protein, low carb breakfast instead.

46. These foods turn us into addicts AND make us fat:

Processed foods are addictive and make it hard to lose weight111.

One study112 compared people who ate processed foods with those who didn’t.

The group that consumed processed foods ate 508 calories more each day and over the 2 week study they gained 0.9kg (2lbs).

People who avoided processed foods lost 0.9kg (2lbs).

So, look at food labels: generally, the longer the list of ingredients the more processed the food is likely to be.

For more tips on how to avoid these nasty things check out my in-depth post on processed foods.

47. Trans fats:

These are heavily processed oils that have been linked with a host of health problems including brain deterioration, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, depression and heart disease and have been shown to increase your chances of dying early from any cause by 34%113!

There’s also evidence that trans fats can increase weight gain and belly fat even where no additional calories are consumed114.

Trans fats are cheap and have a long shelf life so are widely used in food production. 

They are so damaging to health that some countries have effectively banned their use.

Unfortunately, because they are cheap trans fats are still common in many food products.

They are often found in biscuits (sweet and savoury), bread and cake mixes, bread rolls, buns, cakes and doughnuts, croissants, desserts and custards, instant drinks and soups, sausage rolls, crisps and savoury snacks, ice cream, peanut butter, chocolate spreads, coffee whiteners, pies and pasties, pizzas, confectionery, frozen potato products, margarines, spreads, mayonnaise and ready-made/microwave meals.

The following tips will help you to avoid trans fats and make it easier to lose weight:

  • eat whole foods and avoid highly processed foods
  • if you eat processed foods then examine the ingredients labels. If they contain any hydrogenated oils don’t buy them
  • reduce the amount of fried foods you consume
  • do not reuse cooking oils
  • minimise your consumption of foods listed above

48. Avoid BPA:

BPA is short for “bisphenol A”. 

It’s an industrial chemical used in a range of products including aluminium tins, recycled paper, receipt paper, plastic containers and drinks cans.

BPA is an “endocrine disrupter”, a chemical that when absorbed into your body either mimics or blocks hormones and interferes with your body’s normal processes.

It has been linked with a variety of health issues including breast cancer, prostate cancer, heart disease and diabetes. 

It is banned in Canada.

One of the issues with BPA is that it can easily leech out of packaging, etc and into food or directly into our bodies.

BPA can also cause big problems if you’re trying to lose weight.

One study115 showed that people with the highest levels of BPA were 54% more likely to be obese than people with the lowest levels.

Another study116 found that people with the highest levels were 85% more likely to be obese and 62% more likely to have excess belly fat.

BPA appears to have some powerful negative effects but how likely is it that you are exposed to it on a regular basis?

The answer is very likely. A study117 of 2,517 people in the US took urine samples from each of them and found BPA to be present in 92.6% of participants.

This is probably not surprising given the prevalence of BPA and how easily it can leach into our food.

A good illustration of this is a study118 that examined the effects of eating a single can of soup each day for 5 days.

Levels of BPA were measured before and after the 5 day period. At the end of the study the participants’ BPA levels had increased by 1,221%!

The good news is that by changing our habits we can do a lot to eliminate BPA from our lives.

BPA has a short “half-life” in your body119 which means that it does not hang around long. 

The issue is that it is so prevalent that by the time you’ve eliminated one dose you have been exposed to further doses.

A study120 carried out by Breast Cancer Fund showed how quickly BPA is expelled from our bodies.

By simply eliminating canned food and food packaged in plastic participants reduced their BPA levels by 60% in just 3 days.

So, how can you avoid it? Here are some tips:

  • avoid bottled water. Thin plastics used in bottles leach BPA into the water and this issue becomes worse if the bottle is reused
  • use only BPA (and phthalate! – see below)-free plastics, particularly for food storage/preparation. If possible avoid plastics altogether
  • avoid plastic bags and food wrap, unless BPA-free
  • eat/drink fewer canned/tinned foods/drinks
  • do not accept till receipts unless necessary

49. And phthalates:

Phthalates are another group of chemicals that are found in a wide range of products including glues, building materials, personal care products, packaging, toys, shower curtains, floor tiles, food containers and cleaning products. 

Their use in children’s toys is banned in the European Union and the United States as they have been linked to several health issues, including cancer, diabetes and birth defects, ADHD and asthma.

Phthalates are another endocrine disrupter so they mimic hormones in our bodies and can disrupt our delicate hormonal balance.

And they can make losing weight difficult.

For example, one study121 found that people with the highest levels of a particular phthalate were 3.29 times as likely to be obese than people with the lowest levels. 

Whilst phthalates are all around us it is possible to reduce our levels of exposure. 

In the study122 referred to in the BPA section above researchers also examined phthalate levels and found that they were reduced by 53% by avoiding canned and packaged food.

If you’re trying to lose weight it would be wise to do what you can to avoid phthalates. 

To achieve this, you can do the following:

50. Beware the “low fat” label:

We seem to be conditioned into believing that products labelled “low fat” are healthy when this is not necessarily true.

Low fat products are often loaded with unhealthy ingredients to replace the fat.

But, that’s not all.

Seeing “low fat” on a product label can trick you into eating more.

For example, a study124 that gave people M&Ms that were labelled as “low fat” found that they ate 28% more than when they were not labelled this way.

51. Don’t be swayed by advertising:

When we think of different shops and restaurants we probably categorise them as either healthy or unhealthy, at least subconsciously.

This can be a problem that could jeopardise your attempt to lose weight.

One study125 has shown that when people are asked to estimate the number of calories in foods bought from a restaurant they think is healthy they underestimate by 35%.

In other words, you’re eating 35% more than you think.

52. Beware hidden sugar:

It’s not just sucrose – the most common form of sugar – that’s the problem; sugar comes in many forms and is often hidden in products. 

Various names are used to describe it including:

  • agave syrup
  • brown rice syrup
  • corn syrup
  • fructose
  • dehydrated cane juice
  • fruit juice concentrate
  • glucose
  • dextrin
  • dextrose
  • glucose
  • high-fructose corn syrup
  • inverted sugar
  • isoglucose
  • levulose
  • malt syrup
  • maltodextrin
  • maltose
  • maple syrup
  • palm sugar

Sneaky.

And it can be a big problem when you’re trying to lose weight.

Put simply, eating more sugar leads to weight gain, eating less sugar leads to weight loss126.

To lose weight as quickly as possible you really need to pay attention to food labels.

It’s a chore at first but as you probably buy the same things regularly once you’ve done it the first time you won’t need to do it again.

Trick yourself into eating less without feeling hungry

53. Your plates are supersizing you:

Don’t eat from large plates and bowls, choose smaller ones instead. 

Eating from smaller crockery can reduce the amount of food you eat by 30%127.

Why?

It’s not that we can fit less food on a small plate, it seems to be due to an optical illusion called a “Delboeuf illusion”.

Which of the two grey circles is larger?

Plate size makes it difficult to lose weight

The answer is neither. 

They’re both the same size but the first circle seems much smaller.

Imagine how this translates food. 

The same amount served on a small plate will seem to be more than when served on a large plate.

If you’re eating from larger crockery the chances are that you’re making it more difficult to lose weight.

54. Choose smaller packages:

packaging sizes also impact how much we eat.

A study128 of cinema-goers gave them free stale(!) popcorn before going into the theatre.

Some were given popcorn in a medium size bucket and some were given a large bucket.

Even though the participants weren’t hungry (they’d been given lunch first) and the popcorn was stale, people given large buckets ate 51% more!

55. You don’t chew your food properly:

56. Melt fat with water:

Drinking 500ml (17oz of water) 30 minutes before meals can make us eat 13% fewer calories130.

This simple step can cause weight loss without taking any other measures.

For example, a study131 that gave participants 500ml of water before each meal for 8 weeks whilst eating normally led to weight loss of 1.4kg (3.1lbs) and a 0.6 point reduction in BMI.

57. Energy density of food:

We eat a similar weight of food each day so if you eat foods that are less energy-dense you’ll take in fewer calories. In fact, you can eat more food and still lose weight132.

In this study people were given either a broth-based soup to eat before two meals each day or a dry snack.

Both snacks contained the same number of calories but the soup weighed more.

At the end of the study the people eating soup lost 7.2kg (16lbs) compared to only 4.8kg (10.5lbs) in the dry snack group.

58. If it’s in your cupboard you’ll eat it:

Don't have unhealthy snacks in your cupboard

Don’t keep unhealthy snacks in your store cupboard. 

Store healthy options like fresh fruit, nuts and yogurt instead133.

59. Prepare more meals at home:

Cooking meals more frequently at home is associated with eating a healthier diet and consuming 137 calories fewer each day134.

60. Don’t eat listening to loud or fast music:

Did you know that restaurants play upbeat music to make us eat quicker and order more135?

It may be a good for business but it’s bad for your waistline.

And it’s not just the beat of the music that can cause problems, the volume may be an issue too.

A study136 has shown that if we can’t hear ourselves chewing we end up eating more.

So, if you’re going to eat with music on, make sure it’s chilled and quiet.

61. Eat “mindfully”:

Being more mindful when you eat can result in significant weight loss137

By focusing completely, we eat more slowly which makes us feel fuller and consume fewer calories138 139

This can then help you lose weight.

In fact, one study140 suggested that doing this caused people to lose 7 times more weight (1.9kg (4.2lbs) compared to 0.28kg (0.6lbs)).

Mindful eating involves paying attention to hunger and fullness signs, planning meals and snacks, focusing just on eating at meals and paying close attention to the taste, texture and smell.

Nutritional supplements to help you lose weight

62. Folic acid:

You may have head of folic acid (also known as vitamin B9) in the context of pregnancy. 

It has been proven to reduce the risk of unborn children developing certain conditions.

There’s also evidence that it can significantly improve your ability to lose weight.

A study141 that looked at people’s folate levels found that those with the highest levels lost 8.5 times more weight than people with the lowest levels.

I’m using the term “folic acid” here because it’s the name that most people are familiar with.

Folic acid is actually the synthetic form of vitamin B9. 

Folate is the naturally occurring form and is the best option to go for.

Avoid supplements with “pteroylmonoglutamic acid” on the label as this indicates the synthetic form.

63. Fish oil can shrink your waistline:

There are a few ways fish oil can be helpful when you’re trying to lose weight. 

Fish oil can help us lose body fat

It has been shown142 that a dose of 3g a day can:

  • speed up your metabolism (rate you burn calories), by 14% (so the average person will burn an extra 187 calories each day)
  • increase the amount of energy you use during exercise by 10%
  • increase the amount of fat you burn by 19% whilst yoy’re resting and by 27% during exercise
  • increase lean muscle by 4%

Taking fish oil can also reduce your waistline significantly143.

64. Spinach extract:

Spinach extract is rich in things called thylakoids that can boost your weight loss significantly.

3.7 to 5g before meals has been shown to reduce appetite for several hours afterwards144.

And taking 5g a day can increase weight loss by 43%145.

But that’s not all, 5g a day has also been shown to reduce cravings for sweets by 95% and chocolate by 87%146!

65. Psyllium husk powder:

What?! It’s a type of soluble fibre that comes from plants and is often used as a remedy to gently relieve constipation.

It can also be helpful in losing belly fat.

A study147 has shown that 6g a day of psyllium can reduce belly fat by 4% in 6 weeks. If you also exercise this increases to 7%.

66. Try BCAAs:

BCAA stands for “branched chain amino acids” which are building blocks of protein.

There are three different types: leucine, isoleucine, and valine and they can be very helpful when you’re trying to lose weight.

A study148 has shown that people who eat the least BCAAs are almost twice as like to be overweight or obese than people who eat the highest amount.

Chicken, beef, salmon and eggs are all good sources of BCAAs but go don’t go overboard on your meat intake! 

Alternatively, opt for a supplement.

67. Have a whey protein shake:

Whey protein is one of the best forms of protein. It has numerous benefits, including weight loss.

For example, one study149 showed that simply drinking whey protein shakes is associated with weight loss of 4.2kg (9.2lbs).

If you want to try whey protein the best option is a whey “isolate” product from natural, drug-free, grass-fed cattle.

68. Vitamin D, the king of supplements:

Vitamin D may well be the best supplement for health.

Having adequate vitamin D levels has been linked with a range of health benefits from preventing obesity, heart disease and Parkinson’s disease to foetal brain development and blood sugar regulation.

When it comes to weight loss a study150 showed that vitamin D can quadruple your results.

Researchers gave people 3,000iu of vitamin D a day and compared their weight loss with a control group.

The vitamin D group lost 5.4kg (11.9lbs) compared to only 1.2kg (2.6lbs) in the people not taking vitamin D.

Although this study used 3,000iu per day, research suggests that the best dosage is 70-80iu per kg/2.2lbs of bodyweight a day151.

So, for a 50kg (110lb) woman this would be 3,500iu to 4,000iu per day.

Vitamin D supplements are relatively cheap but you do need to be careful to ensure that you take a specific type.

It generally comes in one of two forms, D2 and D3. D3 is the most commonly available and is the type that our bodies produce. 

It’s the most effective so be sure to choose this type.

69. Check your zinc levels:

Zinc is a mineral that is contained in over 3,000 different proteins in our body and at least 200 different enzymes.

So, it’s not surprising that adequate zinc intake is critical for your body to work optimally.

When it comes to weight loss, a study152 has shown that taking 30mg of zinc a day for a month can lead to weight loss of 1.7kg (3.7lbs) without changing your diet.

The same study found that people taking zinc also lost 2.2cm from their waistlines.

Not bad for just taking a few pills.

Zinc supplementation is likely to be particularly effective if you’re deficient in zinc.

One of the first indications of zinc deficiency is disruption to our sense of taste and this allows us to use a simple test to gauge zinc levels.

First you need to buy a bottle of liquid-form zinc. 

Put 2 tablespoons of the liquid into a cup then take a sip. 

Hold the liquid in your mouth for 30 seconds and notice the taste. Once the time is up spit the liquid out.

How it tasted indicates your zinc levels.

Taste

No taste

Slight mineral taste

Definite mineral taste

Strong mineral taste

Level

Deficient

Deficient

Deficient

Adequate

70. Probiotics:

Our guts are full of bacteria, both good and bad and it has been shown153 that overweight people have more bad bacteria than normal weight people.

Taking probiotics (good bacteria) can not only correct this imbalance, it also appears to promote weight loss.

In one study154, people who took probiotics lost 50% more weight than people who didn’t them.

They also carried on losing weight in what was supposed to be the “weight maintenance” part of the study!

71. Try calcium:

If you don’t get a lot of calcium in your diet it may well scupper your efforts to lose weight.

One study155 showed that people following a weight loss diet who had low calcium intakes lost only 1kg (2.2lbs). 

People with adequate calcium intakes lost nearly 6kg (13.2lbs).

If you’ve been struggling to lose weight a lack of calcium may be the reason.

72. Capsaicin:

This is a chemical contained in chilli peppers that has been shown to be helpful to weight loss in two ways.

First, it helps speed up your metabolism (rate you burn calories) leading to an extra 50 calories a day being burned156.

Secondly, it can reduce your appetite so you’ll eat up to 74 fewer calories at meals157.

In themselves these may not seem like big changes but they soon add up.

You can get more capsaicin either by taking it in supplement form or simply by adding more chillis to your food.

If you choose to supplement, take either 30-120mgs one to three times a day.

73. Glucomannan:

This is a type of fibre that sits in you stomach for a while and absorbs water making you feel less hungry and so leads to eating fewer calories158.

One study159 showed that supplementing with glucomannan can lead to weight loss of 2.5kg (5.5lbs) without making any changes to your diet.

74. MCT oil:

MCT stands for “medium chain triglycerides”, a type of fat that we can’t easily store as body fat.

It has been shown160 to increase calorie burning by around 460 calories a day in men and about 190 calories a day in women.

Not only that but MCT oil also increases the levels of hormones that make us feel full (peptide YY and leptin)161.

75. Curcumin:

Curcumin is a component of the spice turmeric that has potent beneficial effects in our body.

When it comes to weight loss curcumin appears to be very effective.

In one study162 people were put on a diet for 30 days. 

They were then given 1,600mg of curcumin a day for another 30 days.

In the first month they lost 1.6kg (3.5lbs) but in the second month they lost another 4.1kg (9lbs).

If you want to take curcumin make sure you go for a supplement that also contains something called piperine. 

Curcumin isn’t easily absorbed by our body but the addition of piperine increases absorption by up to 2,000%163.

76. Saffron extract:

Saffron is a delicious, deep red spice that is widely used in Spanish and Persian cooking.

It also has potential for increasing weight loss.

Saffron extract can help you slim

Studies164 have shown that saffron can:

  • decrease the amount of calories you digest by blocking fat absorption
  • lower the amount of food you eat by increasing your feelings of fullness
  • improve your ability to handle sugar and fat so you burn more of these for energy and store less as fat

In fact, one study165 found that taking 30mg per day of saffron extract for 8 weeks led to weight loss of 2.3kg (5.1lbs) and a reduction in waistlines of 2.3cm (0.9”) without dieting.

77. Plain old vitamin C:

You’ve probably heard about the health benefits of vitamin C. 

It really is an amazing supplement.

It also seems to be an important nutrient for body composition.

One study166 found that the more vitamin C you consume, the less likely you are to be overweight

On top of that, vitamin C can make you burn 30% more fat when you exercise.

Oranges, blackcurrants, red and green peppers, strawberries, Brussels sprouts and broccoli are all good sources of vitamin C.

If you choose to supplement, the type of vitamin C you take is important. 

Vitamin C passes through your body quickly and so has a limited opportunity to work its magic. 

It is therefore worth spending a bit more to buy a timed-release supplement which has the effect of slowly releasing vitamin C giving it a greater opportunity to work.

78. Melatonin:

This is actually a hormone that occurs naturally in our bodies.

In some countries it is freely available to buy as a nutritional supplement but in others it is only available with a doctor’s prescription.

I have included it here because it has shown to be very helpful to weight loss.

Whether you are able to buy it with or without a prescription it is important that you only take it with the approval of your doctor.

You may have heard of melatonin. 

It has been touted as an “anti-aging” supplement for the last couple of decades.

The reason for this is that it is believed to act as a powerful antioxidant, protect against heart disease, fight cancer, delay Alzheimer’s, tackle obesity and prevent osteoporosis.

It also has potent weight loss effects in people over the age of 40 (an age where melatonin levels decline naturally).

For example, a study167 gave a group of women melatonin for a year which resulted in them losing 6.9% of their bodyfat and gaining 2.6% lean muscle.

This was without any dieting.

Losing this amount of fat is impressive but also gaining lean muscle is even better as it will give you a more toned appearance.

As muscle also burns calories you’ll be able to eat more and stay slim.

79. Inulin:

Inulin is a specific type of fibre that is found in many foods, including bananas, wheat, leeks, asparagus and onions.

It’s another supplement that can boost your weight loss efforts and there is evidence that is particularly useful in targeting belly fat.

For example, one study168 found that 21g per day of inulin can decrease your levels of hunger hormones and increase your levels of “fullness” hormones.

This study had people take inulin each day whilst continuing to eat their normal diet. 

They lost over 0.9kg (2lbs), while people not taking inulin actually gained 0.45kg (1lb) over 12 weeks.

Another study169 compared 30g of inulin a day with another type of fibre and found that the people taking inulin lost 55% more weight (7.6% of starting weight compared to 4.9%).

Hack meal timing

80. Tweak how often you eat:

A review170 of 15 earlier studies concluded that just increasing meal frequency from 3 to 5 (smaller!) meals a day can lead to weight loss of 4.4kg (10lbs).

81. Eat your protein and vegetables before your carbs:

Doing this reduces blood sugar levels by 29%, 37% and 17% 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 120 minutes after eating171.

So, what?

By lowering blood sugar levels we’ll store less food as fat.

82. Get most of your calories in the morning:

Eating a larger proportion of food before noon results in you eating less overall during the day172.

83. Change meal timing:

Try eating all your meals within a 6 hour window (eg 8am to 2pm).

This has been shown to decrease levels of ghrelin (a hormone that makes us feel hungry), increase fullness and reduce the desire to eat173.

84. Eat breakfast later and dinner earlier:

Alternatively eat breakfast an hour and half later and dinner an hour and a half earlier can lead to a 1.9% drop in body fat over 10 weeks174.

85. Or just have lunch a little earlier:

A study175 has shown that people who eat lunch earlier in the day lost 29% more weight than those who ate lunch later.

86. Eat most of your carbs at dinner:

Eating more of your daily carb intake at dinner has been shown to increase weight loss by 28%, be 25% more effective at reducing waistlines and 36% better at decreasing body fat percentage176.

Of course, this doesn’t mean you should load up on junk carbs! Stick to healthy, low glycemic index options.

An added benefit is that eating carbs at night encourages your body to produce a hormone called serotonin which reduces stress levels and promotes a good night’s sleep.

87. Cut the late-night snacks:

Eating snacks after dinner is linked to significantly increased body fat levels171

If you’re snacking in the evening you may be damaging your weight loss efforts.

That’s the bad news. 

The good news is that this one simple tweak can make a significant difference to your waistline.

88. In fact, cut out all snacks:

Snacking between meals can severely damage weight loss.

One study178 showed that weight loss can be significantly lower in snackers compared to non-snackers, 63% lower in fact.

What’s the difference between snacking and increasing meal frequency that we talked about above?

When I talk about increasing meal frequency I mean eating the same amount of food but spread across more meals. 

By doing this you’ll have 5 smaller meals instead of 3 “normal” ones.

The issue with snacking is that it is often in addition to 3 normal meals and so results in extra calories being eaten.

89. Don’t skip meals:

Sure, you may think you’re consuming fewer calories by doing this but it has been shown179 to reduce weight loss by 42%.

In this study regular eaters lost an average of 8.5kg (19lbs) but meal skippers lost only 5kg (11lbs).

The reason for this is you’re more likely to overeat or eat high calorie foods later on, so you end up eating more calories overall.

Mind hacks

90. Think yourself thin:

Visualisation can be extremely powerful. 

Your mind cannot tell the difference between a real and a vividly imagined event.

By imagining something in as much detail as possible it’s as though it is really happening.

One study180 showed just how effective visualisation can be.

Participants were taught a technique called Functional Imagery Training (FIT). 

After 6 months they had lost an average of 4.1kg (9lbs), compared to 0.7kg (1.6lbs) in a group receiving motivational support.

And after 12 months, 6 months after the study had finished, the FIT group continued to lose weight, with an average of 6.4kg (14.2lbs) lost compared with 0.7kg (1.5lbs) in the motivation group.

The FIT group also lost 9.1cm (3.6”) from their waistlines compared to only 2.46cm (1”) in the motivation group.

You can learn more about FIT here: https://www.fimagery.com/.

91. Put down your phone:

Smartphones can distract you whilst eating

Eating whilst distracted can cause you to eat 10% more calories. 

Worse, it can also make you eat 25% more food over the rest of the day181.

This sort of extra calorie intake will make it very difficult to lose weight.

92. Reduce your stress levels:

Stress is linked to weight gain182 and can slow weight loss by up to 78%.

In a weight loss study183 where half the participants were taught stress management techniques, those using the techniques reduced their BMIs by 3.1 points.

The group not using the techniques only managed a 1.74 point reduction.

Higher stress levels also seem to affect our eating patterns and lead to overeating and binging184

Anything you can do to reduce stress can help you to lose weight.

If you think that stress may be harming your weight loss efforts try one of the following things that have been proven to help:

  • hypnosis
  • guided imagery
  • yoga
  • mindfulness meditation
  • jogging
  • using colouring books
  • spending time in nature
  • taking a walk
  • tai chi
  • weight training
  • reading
  • creative activities
  • gardening
  • volunteering
  • laughing

93. Pay by cash instead of card:

Research185 shows that when you pay by card you’re more likely to buy unhealthy, high calorie, weight-loss-stopping food.

The study looked at the shopping behaviour of 1,000 families and found they bought significantly more “impulsive and unhealthy” food when they used cards to pay.

Pay by cash to help avoid succumbing to the temptation of unhealthy foods,

94. Self-checkout:

Impulse buys can be a big issue when you’re trying to lose weight. 

Have you ever been waiting in line and had the urge to grab something from the shelf?

Of course, the things stacked there are rarely healthy.

Research186 has shown that impulse purchases drop by 32.1% in women and 16.7% in men when you use a self-checkout.

95. Scare yourself thin:

There is evidence that watching scary horror movies increases the number of calories we burn and of course the more calories you burn the more weight you’re likely to lose.

A study187 in the UK found that the top 10 calorie-burning films were:

Film

The Shining

Jaws

The Exorcist

Alien

Saw

A Nightmare on Elm Street

Paranormal Activity

The Blair Witch Project

The Texas Chain Saw Massacre

[Rec]

Calories

184

161

158

152

133

118

111

105

107

101

…just don’t load up on high calorie sweetened popcorn whilst you’re watching!

96. Keep unhealthy food out of sight:

People who keep unhealthy snacks such as cookies, candy, cereal and soft drinks on their kitchen counter weigh between 9.4 and 14.4kg (20.7 and 31.7lbs) more than people who have healthy snacks like fresh fruit on display188.

As we’ll see throughout this post, relatively small things can have a big impact on your ability to lose weight.

But, on the flip side, small changes can lead to big differences.

97. Watch less TV:

Research189 has found a strong link between the amount of TV we watch and the food choices we make

If you watch more TV, you choose more unhealthy, high calorie foods which makes it hard to lose weight.

Researchers believe this is because we’re bombarded with ads for unhealthy food and messages about the latest fads in what we should or shouldn’t eat so we develop poor attitudes toward and knowledge about healthy eating.

98. Eat in front of a mirror:

Sure, this would be a bit weird but it is effective!

A study190 found that eating in front of a mirror made unhealthy food less tasty but doesn’t affect the taste of healthy food.

The lead researcher concluded:

A glance in the mirror tells people more than just about their physical appearance. It enables them to view themselves objectively and helps them to judge themselves and their behaviors in a same way that they judge others.

In other words, mirrors encourage you to compare and match your actions with social standards of correctness. 

So, if you know something is unhealthy and will pile on the pounds it won’t taste as good.

99. Don’t eat with gluttons:

We have a basic human need to be like each other and this can cause problems when it comes to weight loss. 

In fact, one study191 showed that your chances of becoming obese increase by 57% if you have a friend that becomes obese, a 40% greater chance if a sibling becomes obese and a 37% increased risk if your spouse becomes obese.

On top of this, if we eat with someone who eats a lot we’re likely to subconsciously copy them and eat more than if we were eating on our own192

Of course, if we eat more than we need, it is very difficult to lose weight.

100. Avoid eating in big groups:

Following on from the last tip, we’re also likely to consume more if we eat in large groups193.

And the larger the group the more we’ll eat.

This appears to be because we spend longer at the table in larger groups and as a result eat more194.

101. Spend more time with like-minded people:

We can use our subconscious desire to be like each other in a positive way: by spending more time with like-minded people we can improve our weight loss results.

A study195 that looked at this area concluded that:

...increasing contacts and interactions with thinner individuals, and declining contacts and interactions with heavier individuals, were linked to actual weight loss.

102. Be flexible, not strict:

A lot of weight loss advice is dogmatic: you have to do a, b and c otherwise the world will come to an end!

A study196 has debunked this nonsense. 

By being flexible and avoiding strict rules you’re likely to lose more weight.

So, the odd unhealthy treat now and then whilst you’re trying to lose weight can actually be a good thing. Just don’t go crazy!

103. Say “ommmmm”:

Bad joke… sorry!. Meditation has been shown to be very effective in boosting weight loss.

The best results come from a combination of formal meditation (where you set aside specific times during the day to meditate) and informal meditation (where you focus completely on the sensations of everyday activities like walking or brushing your teeth).

A review197 concluded that this combination leads to weight loss of 3.3%, it also resets peoples eating patterns so that they continued to lose another 3.5% when researchers followed up several months later.

104. Dim the lights:

A study198 at Cornell University looked at the effects of softening lighting on eating patterns. 

It found that softer lights caused people to eat 18% or 174 calories less (775 calories instead of 949).

This sort of reduction can soon add up into significant weight loss.

And that’s not all. 

People in the study also enjoyed their food more.

105. Declutter your eating environment:

A messy room can have a massive impact on your food choices.

Don’t believe it?

In a study199 where people were asked to choose between an apple and chocolate in either a messy room or a tidy room researchers found that people in messy rooms were 235% more likely to choose chocolate.

106. Behavioural counselling:

Sounds serious but it’s actually just about having someone give you guidance on healthy foods and eating habits and checking in now and then.

It’s surprisingly effective in helping people lose weight.

A study200 found people receiving this sort of guidance lost 50% more weight than those that didn’t.

If you’re interested, check with your doctor as many countries have sponsored programmes you can access for free.

107. Don’t feel guilty:

Do you associate eating unhealthy food with either guilt or celebration? 

If it’s guilt you’re like to lose less weight.

study201 of people with weight loss goals found that those who associated chocolate cake with guilt were less successful at losing weight than those associating chocolate cake with celebration.

So, when you think of unhealthy food see it as a celebration not something to feel guilty about.

108. Don’t shop whilst hungry:

It has been shown202 that shopping when your stomach’s rumbling can cause you to buy 18% more food and 45% more high calorie food.

Not the way to shed the pounds!

109. Laugh, lots:

Not only is laughing fun, it can help you burn more calories and lose weight. 

One study203 found that laughing causes us to burn 20% more calories.

The lead researcher concluded:

We calculated what would happen if somebody laughed for 10 or 15 minutes a day and we found that it was up to 50 calories, depending on your body size and the intensity of the laughter.

That means that if you laugh for 10-15 minutes a day, you'd burn enough calories to lose 2kg (4.4lbs) in a year.

That’s not a huge difference but there can’t be many better ways to lose weight!

110. Pre-meal thoughts affect how much you eat:

For example, thinking about the health effects of what you’re about to eat causes you to serve yourself less food and consume fewer calories.

One study204 showed you’ll eat over 100 calories less each meal following this approach. 

Needless to say, this can add up to substantial weight loss.

111. Look into my eyes:

Hypnosis is proven to be effective in changing people’s habits. 

For long term weight loss changing your behaviour is critical.

Most people are overweight because of the things they have done in the past. 

If they lose weight and then go back to those old behaviours they’ll just go back to where we started.

Hypnosis has been shown to help people change their behaviours so you can lose weight and keep it off.

For example, in one study205 people who were given hypnosis continued to lose weight 18 months later whereas people who didn’t receive it did not.

Another study206 divided people into two groups. 

The first group were taught changes in diet and exercise but didn’t receive hypnosis.

The second group were given the same advice but were also given hypnosis.

Both groups lost weight after 9 weeks but after 8 months and 2 years things were very different.

The group that didn’t receive hypnosis gained most of their weight back but the hypnosis group continued to lose weight.

In fact, far more people in the hypnosis group achieved their weight-loss goals.

How?

The hypnosis helped change their habits so they continued to follow the diet and exercise advice whereas the non-hypnosis group did not.

Hypnosis can be very helpful for weight loss in the short term too.

A review207 of studies comparing weight loss in people receiving hypnosis found that the average short-term weight loss was 5.37kg (11.83lbs) compared to only 2.72kg (6lbs) in people who didn’t receive it.

And in the long term the average weight loss with hypnosis was 6.75kg (14.88lbs) compared to only 2.74kg (6.03lbs).

112. Brain training:

I know, it sounds odd but this is another way you can change your habits (and your weight) for good.

A meta-analysis208 concluded that certain exercises designed to retrain our brains to ignore impulses can make it easier to resist unhealthy foods.

In one of the studies reviewed people’s daily calorie intake decreased by 200 and in another snacking on high calorie foods fell by up to 20%.

And the effects appear quickly: doing the exercises for as little as 10 minutes a week for one month is enough to lead to weight loss.

One of the games simply involved pressing a button when images of healthy foods were shown but doing nothing when junk foods were shown.

The researchers believe this breaks the very strong automatic responses to food we have learned over the years.

In effect, it trains you not to respond to things like chocolate and to respond to things like vegetables.

113. Don’t use plates that are the same colour as your food:

If your food matches the colour of your plate you’re likely to serve yourself more and then overeat.

In one study209, researchers set up a buffet with red and white plates and set out trays of pasta with either a red tomato sauce or a white Alfredo sauce.

People who ate either tomato sauce from a red plate or Alfredo sauce from a white plate served themselves 22% more than people whose plates contrasted with the colour of their food.

114. Don’t get bored:

Boredom can have a big impact on your food choices, making you more likely to become an emotional eater.

This makes it more likely that you will choose unhealthy foods and eat more of them than you normally would210.

So, when you feel boredom creeping up on you, do something. 

Anything that requires you to focus will do the trick.

115. Get some Post-its:

Being obsessive about weight loss can be detrimental to actually losing weight.

One study211 showed that receiving subtle notes gently encouraging people to make healthy food choices was significantly more effective at helping people stick to their weight loss plan than having the need to eat healthily right at the front of their minds.

A simple way to do this is to jot down some encouraging messages and leave them dotted around your living and work spaces.

And don’t underestimate how powerful this approach can be.

Sleep hacks to lose weight

116. A good night’s sleep helps with weight loss:

Poor sleep patterns make it very difficult to lose weight. In fact, one study212 showed that insufficient sleep makes us 55% more likely to become obese.

How much sleep is sufficient?

The US National Sleep Foundation carried out a meta-analysis213 looking at previous research (over 300 publications in total) and recommend that adults between 18 and 64 should get 7-9 hours of sleep per night.

117. But don’t sleep in:

Sleeping until later in the morning has been linked with eating more and poorer food choices.

One study214 showed that “late sleepers” ate 248 calories more a day, half as many fruits and vegetables, twice the amount of fast food and drank more sugary sodas than people with earlier sleep times.

The author concluded:

The extra daily calories can mean a significant amount of weight gain – 2lbs (0.9kg) per month - if they are not balanced by more exercise.

118. Get to bed earlier:

Going to bed later is associated with eating more calories and more calories from fat compared to going to bed earlier215.

119. Stick to a regular sleep schedule:

One study216 showed that consistent bed times and consistent wake times are linked to significantly lower body fat.

On top of this, getting less than 6.5 or more than 8.5 hours of sleep a night is associated with higher body fat levels.

120. Sleep in a cooler room:

Not all fat in our body is bad In fact, having more “brown fat” fat is a good thing. 

Studies217 have shown that people with low BMIs actually have more brown fat.

More brown fat causes us to burn more calories.

It is activated by cooler temperatures and one study218 found that we can trigger it by sleeping in a cooler room.

In the study people who slept in rooms cooled to 66°F (19°C) for 1 month increased their levels of brown fat by 42% and their ability to burn fat by 10%

They also experienced improved insulin sensitivity (making it less likely the food they ate would be stored as fat).

121. Avoid the night shift:

As I said earlier, we are genetically programmed to sleep when it’s dark and awaken when it’s light.

Even minor disruptions to this pattern can lead to health problems.

When it comes to losing weight, it has been shown that people who work night shifts burn between 53 and 59 calories fewer each day219.

In itself it’s not huge but will soon mount up. 

Add in the fact that we tend to make poorer food choices when we are tired and it’s not difficult to see how night shifts can make it much more difficult to lose weight.

Checking in now and then helps us lose weight

122. Set a goal:

You’ve no doubt heard how important goal setting is. 

Having a written goal makes you 42% more likely to achieve it220.

But it’s especially important for weight loss.

Why does putting goals in writing increase our ability to achieve them so significantly?

Nobody knows for sure but it seems that committing goals to paper brings clarity of purpose and provides direction for our minds.

Edwin Locke, a leading researcher in the area of goal setting over the last 40 years, describes the benefits of written goals as follows:

Goals affect performance by directing attention, mobilizing effort, increasing persistence, and motivating strategy development [(ways of achieving the goal)]221.

123. Take selfies:

Taking photos of yourself from the front, back and sides at the start of your weight loss efforts and then again each week until you have achieved your aim is very effective in boosting weight loss.

I’ll be honest, you probably won’t like the “before” photographs and they may look worse than you expect (they usually do) but doing this has been shown to be extremely powerful.

One study222 showed that seeing the difference in appearance can help motivate you and improve your body image and self-perception.

In fact, 71.3% of the participants in this study achieved their weight goals, far higher than normal.

124. Jump on the scales every day:

Don’t expect to see big changes each day but a daily weigh in can be very helpful.

One study223 has even showed that doing this caused people to lose significant amounts of weight without trying.

And what makes this even more impressive is that the study involved college freshmen and sophomore students, 70-77%% of whom gain 4.2-4.3kg (9.2-9.5lbs) in their first two years, six times greater than normal224.

One of the lead researchers commented:

Regularly weighing yourself can motivate you to engage in healthy eating and exercise behaviours, because it provides you with evidence that these behaviours are effective in helping you lose weight or prevent weight gain.

Similarly, if you see weight gain on the scale, that information can motivate you to make a change.

125. Keep a food diary:

This is another hack that can make you lose weight without trying.

It has been shown225 that keeping a daily food diary causes people to lose 2.3kg (5lbs) in 3 months without taking any other steps.

Where people are trying to lose weight keeping a daily food diary can double weight loss226.

But you need to be consistent.

Another study227 showed that people who kept a food diary at least 6 days a week lost almost twice as much weight as people who only kept the diary for 1 day a week.

126. Snap your food:

Taking photos of what you eat can be a powerful way to naturally eat healthier foods and lose weight.

A study228 in 2008 showed that taking photos can increase your awareness of your diet and highlight any unhealthy aspects.

This then leads to a change in your eating habits because it forces you to think about whether eating the food will help you lose weight.

127. Tell the world:

Or just one other person can help you lose weight.

Making your weight loss effort public can be very effective in increasing the likelihood you’ll reach your goals.

A large meta-analysis229 that reviewed 138 previous studies concluded that where progress is monitored in public (eg a Weight Watchers weigh-in) you’re 55% more likely to achieve your goal.

And where progress is monitored privately, but the information is shared with at least one other person you’re 47% more likely to achieve our goal.

So, whilst making your results public is helpful, it doesn’t need to be done in a formal (ie paid for) setting. 

It’s almost as effective to share your progress with, for example, friends and family.

128. Get some weight loss buddies:

Social media often gets a bad rap but it can help you lose more weight.

A study230 looked at the impact people’s engagement in an online weight loss community and found that people who used it the most lost twice as much weight as people who didn’t use it at all (8.3% of starting weight compared to 4.1%).

Crush your cravings

129. Squeeeeeeeze:

It happens to everyone at some point. 

You crave something that you “know” you shouldn’t eat… but you want it so much it’s almost impossible to resist!

Fortunately, there are a few things you can do to overcome cravings. 

The first one is to contract your biceps when you feel a craving coming on.

A study231 has shown that doing this can decrease your desire to eat unhealthy snacks.

130. Play a game:

When a craving starts doing something to take your mind off it for a few minutes can be very effective.

For example, one study232 showed that playing the computer game Tetris for 3 minutes reduced cravings significantly.

Actually, it’s not the game itself that diminishes the craving, any activity that requires you to focus will have the same effect.

Tapping your forehead and ear with your index finger, tapping a toe on the floor, or staring intently at a blank wall have all been shown to significantly to reduce a craving’s intensity233!

131. Eating healthily reduces cravings:

Following a healthier eating plan can help to reduce your temptation to eat high calorie foods. In fact, your cravings can completely disappear234.

It’s a virtuous circle: the less you eat unhealthy foods, the less you’ll crave them.

So, if you can overcome the cravings in the early days of your weight loss efforts you should find that they become less frequent.

132. Eat more protein:

As we’ve seen above, eating more protein has a number of benefits when you’re trying to lose weight. 

Where cravings are concerned, it has been shown that increasing your protein intake to 25% of daily calories reduces cravings by 60%235.

For a guide on calculating your individual protein intake take a look at this post.

133. Take a walk:

Getting up and going for a 5 minute walk each hour can reduce your cravings, boost your mood, help you feel less tired and reduce your appetite236.

134. Take a walk now:

But what if you have a craving now? 

Walking can still help. 

Another study237 found that taking a 15 minute walk significantly reduces existing cravings.

Just don’t walk to the fast food joint…

135. If you’re going to eat something unhealthy, eat from these:

Red plates, bowls and cups reduce the amount of food and drink we consume

If you succumb to a craving use red crockery to limit the damage238.

136. Look at something disgusting:

A study239 that showed people photos of disgusting foods or others with disgusted facial expressions found they had reduced cravings immediately after seeing the image!

137. Get Insta-slim:

Looking at pictures of tempting foods can also reduce your desire to eat them because you think they’re less tasty.

A study240 showed people photos of either sweet foods (cake and chocolates) or salty foods like (French fries and pretzels) then gave them sweet or salty snacks.

People who’d seen pictures of salty foods rated them less tasty, while those who’d seen pictures of sweet foods rated the sweet snacks lower.

138. Think about the future:

When a craving arises, focusing on the long-term negative impact of eating whatever it is you’re craving appears to be an effective way to reduce your desire to eat it.

A similar approach is used with good success to help smokers quit.

A study241 compared 4 techniques to beat cravings: 

  • distracting yourself by thinking about something other than the food
  • accepting your thoughts and recognising they are just thoughts that don’t need to be acted upon
  • focusing on negative long-term consequences of eating the food
  • thinking about immediate reward of the food

139. Imagine you’ve already eaten:

Another study242 had participants imagine putting coins in a laundry machine or eating M&Ms before actually eating them.

People who imagined eating 30 M&Ms and inserting coins three times ate significantly fewer chocolates than people who imagined inserting 30 coins and eating three M&Ms or just putting 30 coins in the machine.

The reason?

If you vividly imagine something your mind cannot tell the difference from what is actually happening. 

You therefore think you’ve already eaten so don’t eat as much.

140. Be mindful:

Mindfulness is all the rage at the moment and with good reason. 

It has been shown to be helpful in treating a number of conditions.

When it comes to tackling cravings a large meta-analysis243 concluded that mindfulness is effective at reducing binge and emotional eating.

So, when a craving hits focus intently on your breathing and shut out all thoughts until it passes.

Some people find it difficult at first but with practice it becomes easier.

141. Expect to go cold turkey:

If you’re used to eating lots of processed foods you can get withdrawal symptoms if you switch to a healthy diet.

A study244 has shown that the first 2-5 days are the worst and people often experience sadness, irritability, tiredness and cravings.

Expecting these symptoms and knowing they’ll soon pass will help you ride out the initial period. 

Things then get much easier.

Turbocharge your weight loss with exercise

142. HIIT me up:

I talk about all the benefits of HIIT and gave some workouts in our in-depth guide but here the focus is losing weight and HIIT is very effective at boosting that.

For example, one study245 compared doing 20 minutes of HIIT 3 times a week to 40 minutes of cardio 3 times per week.

Even though the cardio group worked out for twice as long, they actually gained on average 0.5kg (1lb) of fat. The HIIT group lost an average of 2.5kg (5.5lbs) of fat.

143. Pump iron:

I also looked at the benefits of weight training in this post and I’ll touch on its weight loss effects here.

Weight training with short rest intervals can burn a huge number calories following workouts.

One study246 showed it can burn an additional 452 calories in the 22 hours following a workout.

At this level weight loss will follow very quickly.

144. If you don’t want to try HIIT or use weights, walk more:

Whilst it is not as effective as HIIT or weight training, just walking more can help you lose weight and belly fat.

One study247 found walking for 50–70 minutes three times a week for 12 weeks caused people to lose 1.5% of their body fat and shrunk their waistlines by 2.8cm (1.1”).

This may not sound a lot at first, but it’s enough to make a very noticeable difference.

Another study248 put people on a diet and had half walk for one hour five times a week for 12 weeks.

The walking group lost an extra 1.3% body fat and 3.7cm (1.5”) from their waistlines compared to the diet only group.

145. And walk straight after a meal:

There is evidence that a 30 minute brisk walk straight after lunch and dinner can lead to weight loss of 3kg (6.6lbs) in 30 days249.

Interestingly, weight loss was only 1.5kg (3.3lbs) when walking at leisurely pace and waiting 60 minutes for the meal “to go down” before doing the same walks led to no weight loss.

146. If you can, ditch the car commute:

Commuting to work by car is linked to significant weight gain.

A study250 looked at the weights of people who took their car to work and compared them to people who did not.

Over 4 years the car commuters gained 73% more weight that people who didn’t take the car.

147. Or try yoga:

Yoga is a good form of exercise for weight loss

Yoga may not be the first type of exercise that comes to mind when you think about weight loss but studies show it can:

In fact, one study255 showed people lost 1.9kg (4.2lbs) in only 10 days by doing yoga.

148. Take the stairs:

Exercise doesn’t need to be in the form of a formal exercise session. 

Just doing a few extra things here and there can burn more calories and help you lose weight.

Taking the stairs is a good example.

It has been shown that just climbing a 14m (46ft) high stairway one step at a time five times a day burns around 302 calories per week256.

Of course, if the stairway is higher fewer trips will give a similar result.

Don’t skip steps though. 

The same study showed going up two steps at a time only burned 266 calories.

149. Exercise in the morning:

If you can exercise in the morning to lose more weight.

A study257 compared people who exercised in the morning with those who exercised in the afternoon/evening. 

It found that the morning exercisers lost 243% more weight (7.2% compared to 2.1%).

150. Boost calorie burning with a weighted vest:

Wearing a weighted vest (ankle weights or just a heavy back pack will do the same job) can boost calories burned by 12%. 

A study258 found that people who wore a vest that weighed 15% of their body weight burned 12% more calories.

Over time this can add up to a significant weight loss.

151. Get a gym buddy:

Hate exercising? 

You’re not alone. But exercising can be a very effective way to lose weight.

So, what can you do?

Getting someone to workout with can help. A study259 has shown that if you work out with someone you’ll likely exercise significantly more.

152. Or a dog:

According to one study260 dog owners are 4 times more likely to meet the Government’s recommended activity levels than people who don’t have dogs.

Of course, more activity means more calories burned and lower weight.

But it’s not just the fact that dog owners take more walks.

There is evidence261 that owning a dog can alter the balance of critical (good) bacteria in our bodies helping us to be slim.

153. Or just have more sex:

Having more sex can help you shift the pounds!

A study262 has shown that men burn an average of 101 calories and women burn 69 calories when they have sex.

Interestingly, the researchers in this study asked whether people preferred sex or exercising on a treadmill. 

Unsurprisingly, all the men and 95% of the women said that sex was more pleasant. 

If ever there was a pointless question…! 

(Although, let’s not ask about the 5% of women who preferred the treadmill!)

Diets to help you lose weight long term

154. Avoid yo-yo dieting:

Yo-yo dieting is where people lose weight on a diet, pile it all back on then try to diet it off again. 

Avoid this at all costs.

Yo-yo dieting is usually caused by diets that severely restrict calories and causes weight gain in the medium/long term263

By drastically cutting calories you’ll often see quick results on the scales but the result is that your body thinks it’s in starvation mode (we have not evolved much from times when food could be scarce).

It then takes action to slow down the rate you burn calories in an effort to help you survive for as long as possible. 

The initial drop in weight is usually just water and carbohydrate stored in your muscles which returns when normal eating is resumed. 

But that’s not all…

Your body also keeps the amount of calories it burns low so that you put back on weight as a protection mechanism just in case you encounter another “starvation” period. 

What makes things worse is that it doesn’t just wait until you have returned to your previous weight it waits until you have added a bit more fat as “insurance” in case you have another “starvation period”. 

This worked well when we were hunter-gatherers but just leads to yo-yo dieting in modern times.

155. Intermittent fasting:

We evolved in a struggle for survival. 

We couldn’t go to the shops and buy food, we had to hunt and gather. 

Food could be scarce.

We certainly didn’t always eat three meals a day and at times we could go long stretches without food.

Fortunately, our bodies evolved over a long period to cope with this.

And it seems intermittent fasting may be a way of harnessing our bodies’ coping mechanisms to our advantage.

“Intermittent fasting” just means going an extended period without eating and done right it can double weight loss.

In one study264, people who fasted on alternate days lost 3.5kg (7.7lbs) or 4.5% of their weight in just four weeks.

On the fasting days they were only allowed to consume water or unsweetened coffee or tea but on the non-fasting days they were allowed to each as much as they wanted.

Not only that, much of the weight lost was hard-to-shift belly fat.

Interestingly, this approach also reduced levels of bad cholesterol and biological markers linked to disease, aging and inflammation.

Now, whilst this may be a very effective approach to lose weight, it’s not easy, should only be used as a short-term measure and may not be appropriate for everyone.

If you want to give it a try only do so after consulting with your doctor.

156. Keto:

Unless you’ve been living under a rock for the last few years you’ll have heard of the ketogenic diet.

It can be very effective for fat loss but should only be used as a short term measure.

One of the issues with keto is that you have to drastically limit your carb intake and this makes it very difficult to eat a diet balanced out with fruit and vegetables.

How effective is it for weight loss?

A study265 comparing a ketogenic diet to a low calorie diet found that after 2 months weight loss in the keto group was 13.6kg (30lbs) compared to 4.8kg (10.6lbs).

After 12 months, the difference was even more impressive: the keto group lost 19.9kg (44lbs) but the low calorie group had lost only 7kg (15.4lbs).

You can read a full guide to keto here.

157. Mediterranean diet:

I LOVE the Mediterranean diet. 

After 23+ years of studying nutrition I believe this is the single best eating plan around.

The Mediterranean diet is extremely healthy

For all round health and wellness no other diet beats the Mediterranean diet.

There’s no hype, no gimmicks, nothing to buy, it’s just the diet that people living around the Mediterranean Sea have eaten for eons.

There are subtle variations in the diet between countries but it usually comprises some or all of the following:

  • fresh, local and seasonal fruit, vegetables and herbs
  • wild fish and shellfish
  • lean meat
  • beans/legumes
  • nuts and seeds
  • whole grains
  • extra virgin olive oil

And, importantly, it is low in highly processed foods.

In many ways (grains aside) this diet closely resembles the diet we have evolved to eat and people that follow it have been shown to have lower rates of heart disease, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes, asthma and strokes.

People following a Mediterranean diet also have much lower BMIs266.

In fact, it has been shown that people lose weight when eating a Mediterranean diet even if they are not trying267.

One of the best things about the Mediterranean diet is that it is not extreme and so is easy to stick to.

Compare this with, for example, the ketogenic diet which has a drop out rate of around 55%268.

The Mediterranean diet has a “stickability” rate of 96.3% after one year and 85.3% after two years269.

To turbocharge belly fat loss go for a lower carb version of the diet. 

In one study270 people lost 200% more belly fat (6.9cm (2.7”) compared to 2.3cm (0.9”)) than people following a low fat diet.

158. Paleo diet:

Also known as the Palaeolithic or “caveman” diet. 

It seeks to replicate the foods that humans ate thousands of years ago when we were hunter-gatherers or cavemen.

For me, this diet comes second to the Mediterranean diet but there are many similarities.

Paleo involves eating whole, unprocessed foods like meat, fish, eggs, vegetables, fruits, seeds, nuts, herbs and spices.

You also need to ditch processed foods, sugar, dairy and grains.

It can be very effective for weight loss.

For example, one small study271 found that following Paleo for 3 weeks led to participants losing 2.3kgs (5.1lbs) and shrinking their waistlines by 1.5cm (0.6”).

Another study272 compared Paleo with a low fat diet.

The Paleo group lost 150% more weight after 6 months (6.5kg (14.3lbs) compared to 2.6kg (5.7lbs)) and lost 91% more fat off their waistlines (11.1cm (4.4”) compared to 5.8cm (2.3”)).

The rest

159. Get some morning sun:

We are genetically programmed to sleep when it’s dark and awaken when it’s light. 

Sunlight has a powerful effect on our hormones.

It’s probably no surprise then to learn that it can have a significant impact on your weight.

A study273 found that people who had most of their daily exposure to sunlight in the morning had 20% lower BMIs than people who got most of their sunlight later on.

According to the lead researcher:

The earlier this light exposure occurred during the day, the lower individuals' body mass index, the later the hour of moderately bright light exposure, the higher a person's BMI.

At 500 lux (a measure of light intensity) 20 to 30 minutes of morning light was all it took enough to impact BMI. 

500 lux seems to be the magic number and it’s not difficult to find. 

Even when it’s cloudy, outdoor light is more than 1,000 lux.

160. Have a cheat meal:

Cheat meals can be a controversial subject but there is evidence that, done right, they can boost your weight loss efforts.

When you’re trying to lose weight the levels of an appetite-suppressing hormone (leptin) can decrease whilst levels of a hunger stimulating hormone (ghrelin) can increase.

That’s bad news so anything we can do to stop this will help bring continued weight loss.

One study274 showed that you can boost leptin levels by almost 30% by eating a carb-rich cheat meal.

There’s also a psychological benefit to cheat meals. By giving yourself an incentive for achieving something you’re more likely to follow through.

11 out of 12 studies that looked at incentives and eating habits found a positive association between them275.

Of course, with cheat meals it’s easy to go overboard and ruin all the good work you’ve done. 

Here are some guidelines to help you find the right balance:

  • pick one meal each week as your cheat meal
  • decide how you will cheat in advance
  • eat any protein and veggies first to help lessen the blood sugar spike of the carbs
  • when you leave the table your cheat meal is over. No more eating!

161. Try acupuncture:

For those who don’t know, acupuncture is a treatment involving the insertion of tiny needles into the skin at various points around our body. 

How can having pins stuck in us help us lose weight? 

To Westerners the concept may seem completely alien but to people in the East acupuncture is a standard medical treatment. 

Acupuncture may help with losing weight

In Traditional Chinese Medicine how energy flows around your body is an important principle.

TCM believes that when energy (called Qi, pronounced “chee”) flows smoothly around our body health is maintained. 

But when the energy is obstructed disease, pain or illness can occur. 

The overall aim of acupuncture is to remove any blockages and to preserve the smooth flow of energy.

In the West we are often sceptical about things that are outside our cultural norms, things that do not fit with our perception of the world. 

If it sounds different then it is frequently treated with suspicion rather than approached with an open mind. 

From my experience, acupuncture falls into this category.

This is a shame because by closing our minds we may miss out on things that can be beneficial to us.

In a review276 of 31 studies involving 3,013 people researchers concluded that acupuncture is associated with significant weight loss together with a much lower risk of becoming obese.

162. Environmental pollution:

We live in an increasingly industrialised world where vehicles and industry pump out waste products into our environment.

These pollutants are a mixture of different substances, the proportion of which will vary based on your location but to give you an idea a study277 in the US identified 70,000 different industrial chemicals in the environment with 1,000 new synthetic chemicals being produced each year.

In 2016 a report278 looking into the effects of environmental pollution estimated that 40,000 deaths in the United Kingdom each year are linked to pollution. It also linked pollution to asthma, heart disease, cancer and diabetes.

The World Health Organisation had earlier concluded that pollution causes cancer, particularly lung cancer, and estimated that it was responsible for 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012279.

Make no mistake, this is a serious issue.

And it appears that pollution make contribute to obesity and make losing weight difficult.

In one study280, exposure to a certain pollutant was linked to a 30% higher risk of being overweight or obese.

So, what can you do?

Move to the countryside at least 100 miles from the nearest town!

Seriously, the following can help reduce your exposure. 

They may not be possible all of the time, or even most of the time, but the more you do them the more you will reduce your exposure:

  • keep away from busy roads as much as possible. Use roads with little traffic instead
  • steer clear of factories and industrial plants as far as you can
  • avoid “urban canyons”, areas with tall buildings where pollution collects
  • check daily pollution forecasts and avoid areas forecast to have high pollution
  • avoid areas of traffic congestion
  • when exercising outdoors make a greater effort to apply the above measures as it has been shown281 that exercising near sources of pollution causes 5 times as much pollution to be inhaled
  • if you live in an urban area or near an industrial plant keep your windows and doors closed, particularly on days forecast to have high pollution

163. Use your smartphone less:

High levels of smartphone use are linked with lower levels of physical activity and worse food choices.

A recent study282 found that using your smartphone for 5 or more hours a day is associated with a 43% increased risk of obesity.

It also found that it can make you twice as likely to consume more sugary drinks, fast food, sweets, snacks and be less physically active.

Not the way to lose weight.

Conclusion

That’s quite a list.

Now I’d like to hear from you:

Which weight loss tip from this list was new to you?

Or maybe I missed something.

Either way, let me know by leaving a comment below.

References

1 The effects of consuming frequent, higher protein meals on appetite and satiety during weight loss in overweight/obese men. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011 Apr;19(4):818-24

2 Postprandial thermogenesis is increased 100% on a high-protein, low-fat diet versus a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet in healthy, young women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002 Feb;21(1):55-61

3 A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr July 2005 vol. 82 no. 1 41-48

4 Effect of normal-fat diets, either medium or high in protein, on body weight in overweight subjects: a randomised 1-year trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Oct;28(10):1283-90

5 Quality protein intake is inversely related with abdominal fat. Nutrition & Metabolism 20129:5

6 Luisella Vigna, University of Milan, Italy. European Congress on Obesity, 9th May 2015

7 Volumetric dilution, rather than sequestration best explains the low vitamin D status of obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Jul;20(7):1444-8

8 High caloric intake at breakfast vs. dinner differentially influences weight loss of overweight and obese women. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Dec;21(12):2504-12

9 The effects of exercise session timing on weight loss and components of energy balance: midwest exercise trial 2. Int J Obes (Lond). 2019 Jul 9

10 Consumption of extra virgin olive oil improves body composition and blood pressure in women with excess body fat: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eur J Nutr. 2018 Oct;57(7):2445-2455

11 Identifying substances that regulate satiety in oils and fats and improving low-fat foodstuffs by adding lipid compounds with a high satiety effect; Key findings of the DFG/AiF cluster project “Perception of fat content and regulating satiety: an approach to developing low-fat foodstuffs”, 2009-2012

12 Variation in the effects of three different breakfast meals on subjective satiety and subsequent intake of energy at lunch and evening meal. Eur J Nutr. 2013 Jun;52(4):1353-9

13 Egg breakfast enhances weight loss. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 Oct; 32(10): 1545–1551

14 Potential role of bioavailable curcumin in weight loss and omental adipose tissue decrease: preliminary data of a randomized, controlled trial in overweight people with metabolic syndrome. Preliminary study. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015 Nov;19(21):4195-202

15 Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta Med. 1998 May; 64(4):353-6

16 Fast food restaurant lighting and music can reduce calorie intake and increase satisfaction. Psychol Rep. 2012 Aug;111(1):228-32

17 Physical order produces healthy choices, generosity, and conventionality, whereas disorder produces creativity. Psychol Sci. 2013 Sep;24(9):1860-7

18 Comparing Self-Monitoring Strategies for Weight Loss in a Smartphone App: Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 2019; 7 (2): e12209

19 CHR Study Finds Keeping Food Diaries Doubles Weight Loss. Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, Jul 08 2008

20 Weight Loss During the Intensive Intervention Phase of the Weight-Loss Maintenance Trial. Am J Prev Med. 2008 Aug; 35(2): 118–126

21 Effectiveness of green tea on weight reduction in obese Thais: A randomized, controlled trial. Physiol Behav. 2008 Feb 27;93(3):486-91

22 Metabolic effects of caffeine in humans: lipid oxidation or futile cycling? Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jan;79(1):40-6

23 Interactions of black tea polyphenols with human gut microbiota: implications for gut and cardiovascular health. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Dec;98(6 Suppl):1631S-1641S

24 Decaffeinated green and black tea polyphenols decrease weight gain and alter microbiome populations and function in diet-induced obese mice. Eur J Nutr. 2018 Dec;57(8):2759-2769

25 Higher dietary flavone, flavonol, and catechin intakes are associated with less of an increase in BMI over time in women: a longitudinal analysis from the Netherlands Cohort Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Nov;88(5):1341-52

26 Effects of black tea on body composition and metabolic outcomes related to cardiovascular disease risk: a randomized controlled trial. Food Funct. 2014 Jul 25;5(7):1613-20

27 Beverage Consumption in Relation to Discretionary Food Intake and Diet Quality Among US Adults, 2003 to 2012. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2015

28 Alcohol Intake and Weight Loss During Intensive Lifestyle Intervention for Adults with Overweight or Obesity and Diabetes. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2019 Jan;27(1):30-40

29 Dairy consumption in association with weight change and risk of becoming overweight or obese in middle-aged and older women: a prospective cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Apr;103(4):979-88

30 High dairy fat intake related to less central obesity: A male cohort study with 12 years’ follow-up. Scand J Prim Health Care. 2013 Jun; 31(2): 89–94

31 Dairy calcium intake, serum vitamin D, and successful weight loss. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Nov;92(5):1017-22

32 Liquid versus solid carbohydrate: effects on food intake and body weight. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Jun; 24(6):794-800

33 Fruit consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from three prospective longitudinal cohort studies. BMJ 2013; 347:f5001

34 25th European Congress on Obesity, May 23-26, Vienna

35 Diet Soft Drink Consumption is Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome: A Two Sample Comparison. Nutrients. 2015 May; 7(5): 3569–3586

36 Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota. Nature. 2014 Oct 9;514(7521):181-6

37 Microbiological, technological and therapeutic properties of kefir: a natural probiotic beverage. Braz J Microbiol. 2013 Oct 30;44(2):341-9

38 Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Nutr. 2016 Feb;55(1):295-304

39 The effects of consuming frequent, higher protein meals on appetite and satiety during weight loss in overweight/obese men. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011 Apr;19(4):818-24

40 Postprandial thermogenesis is increased 100% on a high-protein, low-fat diet versus a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet in healthy, young women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002 Feb;21(1):55-61

41 A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr July 2005 vol. 82 no. 1 41-48

42 Effect of normal-fat diets, either medium or high in protein, on body weight in overweight subjects: a randomised 1-year trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Oct;28(10):1283-90

43 Quality protein intake is inversely related with abdominal fat. Nutrition & Metabolism 20129:5

44 A satiety index of common foods. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995 Sep;49(9):675-90

45 Closing America’s Fiber Intake Gap. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2017 Jan-Feb; 11(1): 80–85

46 Carbohydrate quality and human health: a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Lancet. 2019 Feb 2;393(10170):434-445

47 Increasing total fiber intake reduces risk of weight and fat gains in women. J Nutr. 2009 Mar;139(3):576-81

48 Water incorporated into a food but not served with a food decreases energy intake in lean women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Oct;70(4):448-55

49 Increasing total fiber intake reduces risk of weight and fat gains in women. J Nutr. 2009 Mar;139(3):576-81

50 Changes in Intake of Fruits and Vegetables and Weight Change in United States Men and Women Followed for Up to 24 Years: Analysis from Three Prospective Cohort Studies. PLoS Med. 2015 Sep; 12(9): e1001878

51 The effects of grapefruit on weight and insulin resistance: relationship to the metabolic syndrome. J Med Food. 2006 Spring;9(1):49-54

52 The effects of daily consumption of grapefruit on body weight, lipids, and blood pressure in healthy, overweight adults. Metabolism. 2012 Jul;61(7):1026-35

53 Prevention of obesity by dietary resveratrol: how strong is the evidence? Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab. 2015; 10(6): 561–564

54 Avocado consumption by adults is associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and some measures of adiposity: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2012

55 A randomized 3×3 crossover study to evaluate the effect of Hass avocado intake on post-ingestive satiety, glucose and insulin levels, and subsequent energy intake in overweight adults. Nutr J. 2013 Nov 27;12:155

56 Weight loss associated with a daily intake of three apples or three pears among overweight women. Nutrition. 2003 Mar;19(3):253-6

57 A low-energy-dense diet adding fruit reduces weight and energy intake in women. Appetite. 2008 Sep;51(2):291-5

58 Ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle and brown fat and decreases diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e39332

59 Changes in Intake of Fruits and Vegetables and Weight Change in United States Men and Women Followed for Up to 24 Years: Analysis from Three Prospective Cohort Studies. PLoS Med. 2015 Sep; 12(9): e1001878

60 Anti-obese action of raspberry ketone. Life Sci. 2005 May 27;77(2):194-204

61 Raspberry ketone increases both lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Planta Med. 2010 Oct;76(15):1654-8

62 Blueberry intake alters skeletal muscle and adipose tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activity and reduces insulin resistance in obese rats. J Med Food. 2011 Dec;14(12):1511-8

63 Fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause, cancer and CVD mortality: analysis of Health Survey for England data. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2014 Sep;68(9):856-62

64 Cohort study examining the association between vegetable consumption and weight gain in a single year among Japanese employees at a manufacturing company. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 2015;24:633–638

65 Dietary Predictors of 5-Year Changes in Waist Circumference. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 2009;109:1356–1366

66 Only 1 in 10 Adults Get Enough Fruits or Vegetables. CDC Press Release, Thursday, November 16, 2017

67 Fermented kimchi reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight and obese patients. Nutr Res. 2011 Jun;31(6):436-43

68 Changes in Intake of Fruits and Vegetables and Weight Change in United States Men and Women Followed for Up to 24 Years: Analysis from Three Prospective Cohort Studies. PLoS Med. 2015 Sep; 12(9): e1001878

69 Changes in Intake of Fruits and Vegetables and Weight Change in United States Men and Women Followed for Up to 24 Years: Analysis from Three Prospective Cohort Studies. PLoS Med. 2015 Sep; 12(9): e1001878

70 Epidemiological studies on brassica vegetables and cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1996 Sep;5(9):733-48

71 Cruciferous vegetable intake is inversely correlated with circulating levels of proinflammatory markers in women. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014 May;114(5):700-8.e2

72 Consumption of citrus and cruciferous vegetables with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus based on a meta-analysis of prospective study. Prim Care Diabetes. 2016 Aug;10(4):272-80

73 Dietary intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of cardiovascular disease. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2003 Nov;5(6):492-9

74 Indole-3-carbinol is a negative regulator of estrogen receptor-alpha signaling in human tumor cells. J Nutr. 2000 Dec;130(12):2927-31

75 Consumption of extra virgin olive oil improves body composition and blood pressure in women with excess body fat: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eur J Nutr. 2018 Oct;57(7):2445-2455

76 Identifying substances that regulate satiety in oils and fats and improving low-fat foodstuffs by adding lipid compounds with a high satiety effect; Key findings of the DFG/AiF cluster project “Perception of fat content and regulating satiety: an approach to developing low-fat foodstuffs”, 2009-2012

77 Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure and urinary catecholamines of humans consuming low-to-moderate amounts of medium-chain triglycerides: a dose-response study in a human respiratory chamber. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1996 Mar;50(3):152-8

78 Covert manipulation of the ratio of medium- to long-chain triglycerides in isoenergetically dense diets: effect on food intake in ad libitum feeding men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996 May;20(5):435-44

79 An Open-Label Pilot Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Virgin Coconut Oil in Reducing Visceral Adiposity. ISRN Pharmacol. 2011; 2011: 949686

80 Randomized trial of weight-loss-diets for young adults varying in fish and fish oil content. 

81 Consumption of cod and weight loss in young overweight and obese adults on an energy reduced diet for 8-weeks. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009 Dec;19(10):690-6

82 A comparison of the effects of beef, chicken and fish protein on satiety and amino acid profiles in lean male subjects. J Nutr. 1992 Mar;122(3):467-72

83 Capsaicinoids and capsinoids. A potential role for weight management? A systematic review of the evidence. Appetite. 2012 Oct;59(2):341-8

84 High caloric intake at breakfast vs. dinner differentially influences weight loss of overweight and obese women. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Dec;21(12):2504-12

85 Dietary energy density in the treatment of obesity: a year-long trial comparing 2 weight-loss diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun; 85(6): 1465–1477

86 Nut consumption and weight gain in a Mediterranean cohort: The SUN study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007 Jan;15(1):107-16

87 Almonds vs complex carbohydrates in a weight reduction program. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Nov;27(11):1365-72

88 The effects of ginger intake on weight loss and metabolic profiles among overweight and obese subjects: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2019;59(11):1753-1766

89 Ginger consumption enhances the thermic effect of food and promotes feelings of satiety without affecting metabolic and hormonal parameters in overweight men: A pilot study. Metabolism. 2012 Oct; 61(10): 1347–1352

90 Is consuming yoghurt associated with weight management outcomes? Results from a systematic review. Int J Obes (Lond). 2016 May; 40(5): 731–746

91 Dairy augmentation of total and central fat loss in obese subjects. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005 Apr;29(4):391-7

92 Variation in the effects of three different breakfast meals on subjective satiety and subsequent intake of energy at lunch and evening meal. Eur J Nutr. 2013 Jun;52(4):1353-9

93 Egg breakfast enhances weight loss. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 Oct; 32(10): 1545–1551

94 Hypolipidemic Effect of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum Linn.) in Rats Fed High Fat Diet. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 2002 Volume 32 Pages 31-42

95 Indian Spices for Healthy Heart – An Overview. Curr Cardiol Rev. 2010 Nov; 6(4): 274–279

96 Black pepper-based beverage induced appetite-suppressing effects without altering postprandial glycaemia, gut and thyroid hormones or gastrointestinal well-being: a randomized crossover study in healthy subjects. Food Funct. 2018 May 23;9(5):2774-2786

97 Whole grain compared with refined wheat decreases the percentage of body fat following a 12-week, energy-restricted dietary intervention in postmenopausal women. J Nutr. 2012 Apr;142(4):710-6

98 Effects of a Water-Soluble Cinnamon Extract on Body Composition and Features of the Metabolic Syndrome in Pre-Diabetic Men and Women. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2006; 3(2): 45–53

99 The Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Chickpeas and Hummus. Nutrients. 2016 Dec; 8(12): 766

100 Chickpea supplementation in an Australian diet affects food choice, satiety and bowel health. Appetite. 2010 Apr;54(2):282-8

101 Chickpeas suppress postprandial blood glucose concentration, and appetite and reduce energy intake at the next meal. J Food Sci Technol. 2017 Mar; 54(4): 987–994

102 Effects of dietary pulse consumption on body weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 May;103(5):1213-23

103 Dietary pulses, satiety and food intake: a systematic review and meta-analysis of acute feeding trials. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014 Aug;22(8):1773-80

104 Effectiveness of legume consumption for facilitating weight loss: a randomized trial. FASEB Journal, Vol. 22, No. 1_supplement, March 2008

105 A legume-based hypocaloric diet reduces proinflammatory status and improves metabolic features in overweight/obese subjects. Eur J Nutr. 2011 Feb;50(1):61-9

106 Beneficial effects of a 5-week low-glycaemic index regimen on weight control and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight non-diabetic subjects. Br J Nutr. 2007 Dec;98(6):1288-98

107 An 18-mo randomized trial of a low-glycemic-index diet and weight change in Brazilian women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep;86(3):707-13

108 Effect of garlic powder consumption on body composition in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Adv Biomed Res. 2016; 5: 2

109 Tomato juice supplementation in young women reduces inflammatory adipokine levels independently of body fat reduction. Nutrition, Volume 31, Issue 5, May 2015, Pages 691-696

110 Variation in the effects of three different breakfast meals on subjective satiety and subsequent intake of energy at lunch and evening meal. Eur J Nutr. 2013 Jun;52(4):1353-9

111 From Passive Overeating to “Food Addiction”: A Spectrum of Compulsion and Severity. ISRN Obesity Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 435027

112 Ultra-Processed Diets Cause Excess Calorie Intake and Weight Gain: An Inpatient Randomized Controlled Trial of Ad Libitum Food Intake. CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL REPORT| VOLUME 30, ISSUE 1, P67-77.E3, JULY 02, 2019

113 Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. BMJ 2015; 351

114 Why fast foods are bad, even in moderation. New Scientist. 9 January 2007

115 Urinary bisphenol A and obesity in adults: results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey. Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can. 2017 Dec; 37(12): 403–412

116 Urinary bisphenol A and obesity: NHANES 2003-2006. Environ Res. 2011 Aug;111(6):825-30

117 Exposure of the U.S. Population to Bisphenol A and 4-tertiary-Octylphenol: 2003–2004. Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Jan; 116(1): 39–44.

118 Canned Soup Consumption and Urinary Bisphenol A: A Randomized Crossover Trial. JAMA. 2011;306(20):2218-2220

119 Critical evaluation of key evidence on the human health hazards of exposure to bisphenol A. Crit Rev Toxicol 41, 263–291

120 Food Packaging and Bisphenol A and Bis(2-Ethyhexyl) Phthalate Exposure: Findings from a Dietary Intervention. Environ Health Perspect. 2011 July 1; 119(7): 914–920

121 Urinary concentrations of phthalate biomarkers and weight change among postmenopausal women: a prospective cohort study. Environ Health 18, 20 (2019)

122 Food Packaging and Bisphenol A and Bis(2-Ethyhexyl) Phthalate Exposure: Findings from a Dietary Intervention. Environ Health Perspect. 2011 July 1; 119(7): 914–920

123 Dietary sources of cumulative phthalates exposure among the U.S. general population in NHANES 2005-2014. Environment International, March 2018

124 Can ‘Low-Fat’ Nutrition Labels Lead to Obesity? Journal of Marketing Research 43(4):605-617

125 The Biasing Health Halos of Fast Food Restaurant Health Claims: Lower Calorie Estimates and Higher Side-Dish Consumption Intentions” Journal of Consumer Research: October 2007

126 Dietary sugars and body weight: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. BMJ 2013;346:e7492

127 Whether smaller plates reduce consumption depends on who’s serving and who’s looking: a meta-analysis. The Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, January 2016

128 At the movies: How external cues and perceived taste impact consumption volume. Food Qual Preference. 2001;12:69-74

129 Increasing the Number of Chews before Swallowing Reduces Meal Size in Normal-Weight, Overweight, and Obese Adults. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014 Jun;114(6):926-31

130 Water consumption reduces energy intake at a breakfast meal in obese older adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Jul;108(7):1236-9

131 Effect of ‘water induced thermogenesis’ on body weight, body mass index and body composition of overweight subjects. J Clin Diagn Res. 2013 Sep;7(9):1894-6

132 Provision of foods differing in energy density affects long-term weight loss. Obesity Research 2005;13:1052-1060

133 Home environment and psychosocial predictors of obesity status among community-residing men and women. Int J Obes (Lond). 2015 Sep;39(9):1401-7

134 Is cooking at home associated with better diet quality or weight-loss intention? Public Health Nutr. 2015 Jun;18(8):1397-406

135 The effect of music on eating behaviour. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, March 1985, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 221–222

136 The crunch effect: Food sound salience as a consumption monitoring cue. Food Quality and Preference, Volume 51, July 2016, Pages 39-46

137 Mindfulness and weight loss: a systematic review. Psychosom Med. 2015 Jan;77(1):59-67

138 Eating slowly increases the postprandial response of the anorexigenic gut hormones, peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jan;95(1):333-7

139 Eating slowly led to decreases in energy intake within meals in healthy women. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Jul;108(7):1186-91

140 https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-4520564/Diet-not-working-Just-meditate-study-says.html

141 Baseline serum folate level may be a predictive factor of weight loss in a morbid-obesity-management programme. Br J Nutr. 2006 Nov;96(5):956-64

142 Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation for 12 Weeks Increases Resting and Exercise Metabolic Rate in Healthy Community-Dwelling Older Females. PLoS One. 2015; 10(12): e0144828

143 Does Fish Oil Have an Anti-Obesity Effect in Overweight/Obese Adults? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. PLoS One. 2015; 10(11): e0142652

144 Consumption of thylakoid-rich spinach extract reduces hunger, increases satiety and reduces cravings for palatable food in overweight women. Appetite. 2015 Aug;91:209-19

145 Body weight loss, reduced urge for palatable food and increased release of GLP-1 through daily supplementation with green-plant membranes for three months in overweight women. Appetite. 2014 Oct;81:295-304

146 Body weight loss, reduced urge for palatable food and increased release of GLP-1 through daily supplementation with green-plant membranes for three months in overweight women. Appetite. 2014 Oct;81:295-304

147 Psyllium Supplementation in Adolescents Improves Fat Distribution & Lipid Profile: A Randomized, Participant-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial. PLoS One. 2012; 7(7): e41735

148 Higher Branched-Chain Amino Acid Intake Is Associated with a Lower Prevalence of Being Overweight or Obese in Middle-Aged East Asian and Western Adults. J Nutr. 2011 Feb; 141(2): 249–254

149 Effects of whey protein and resistance exercise on body composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Coll Nutr. 2014;33(2):163-75

150 Luisella Vigna, University of Milan, Italy. European Congress on Obesity, 9th May 2015

151 Volumetric dilution, rather than sequestration best explains the low vitamin D status of obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Jul;20(7):1444-8

152 Effects of Zinc Supplementation on the Anthropometric Measurements, Lipid Profiles and Fasting Blood Glucose in the Healthy Obese Adults. Adv Pharm Bull. 2013; 3(1): 161–165

153 Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature. 2006 Dec 21;444(7122):1022-3

154 Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women. Br J Nutr. 2014 Apr 28;111(8):1507-19

155 Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and fat mass loss in female very low-calcium consumers: potential link with a calcium-specific appetite control. Br J Nutr. 2009 Mar;101(5):659-63

156 Capsaicinoids and capsinoids. A potential role for weight management? A systematic review of the evidence. Appetite. 2012 Oct;59(2):341-8

157 Could capsaicinoids help to support weight management? A systematic review and meta-analysis of energy intake data. Appetite. 2014 Feb;73:183-8

158 Effects of dietary fibre on subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Obes Rev. 2011 Sep;12(9):724-39

159 Effect of glucomannan on obese patients: a clinical study. Int J Obes. 1984;8(4):289-93

160 Weight-loss diet that includes consumption of medium-chain triacylglycerol oil leads to a greater rate of weight and fat mass loss than does olive oil. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Mar; 87(3): 621–626

161 Impact of medium and long chain triglycerides consumption on appetite and food intake in overweight men. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Oct; 68(10): 1134–1140

162 Potential role of bioavailable curcumin in weight loss and omental adipose tissue decrease: preliminary data of a randomized, controlled trial in overweight people with metabolic syndrome. Preliminary study. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015 Nov;19(21):4195-202

163 Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta Med. 1998 May; 64(4):353-6

164 Saffron: A Natural Potent Antioxidant as a Promising Anti-Obesity Drug. Antioxidants (Basel). 2013 Dec; 2(4): 293–308

165 Saffron and crocin improved appetite, dietary intakes and body composition in patients with coronary artery disease. J Cardiovasc Thorac Res 2017;9(4):200-208

166 Strategies for healthy weight loss: from vitamin C to the glycemic response. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005 Jun;24(3):158-65

167 Reduced fat mass and increased lean mass in response to 1 year of melatonin treatment in postmenopausal women: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2016 Mar;84(3):342-7

168 Weight loss during oligofructose supplementation is associated with decreased ghrelin and increased peptide YY in overweight and obese adults. 

169 A randomized controlled trial: the effect of inulin on weight management and ectopic fat in subjects with prediabetes. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2015 Oct 24;12:36

170 Effects of meal frequency on weight loss and body composition: a meta-analysis. Nutr Rev. 2015 Feb;73(2):69-82

171 Food Order Has a Significant Impact on Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Levels. Diabetes Care. 2015 Jul; 38(7): e98–e99

172 The time of day of food intake influences overall intake in humans. J Nutr. 2004 Jan;134(1):104-11

173 Early Time-Restricted Feeding Reduces Appetite and Increases Fat Oxidation But Does Not Affect Energy Expenditure in Humans. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2019 Aug;27(8):1244-1254

174 A pilot feasibility study exploring the effects of a moderate time-restricted feeding intervention on energy intake, adiposity and metabolic physiology in free-living human subjects. Journal of Nutritional Science (2018), vol. 7, e22

175 Timing of food intake predicts weight loss effectiveness. Int J Obes (Lond). 2013 Apr; 37(4): 604–611

176 Greater weight loss and hormonal changes after 6 months diet with carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011 Oct;19(10):2006-14

177 Later circadian timing of food intake is associated with increased body fat. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Nov;106(5):1213-1219

178 Associations between snacking and weight loss and nutrient intake among postmenopausal overweight-to-obese women in a dietary weight loss intervention. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Dec; 111(12): 1898–1903

179 Self-Monitoring and Eating-Related Behaviors Are Associated with 12-Month Weight Loss in Postmenopausal Overweight-to-Obese Women. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012 Sep;112(9):1428-1435

180 Functional imagery training versus motivational interviewing for weight loss: a randomised controlled trial of brief individual interventions for overweight and obesity. Int J Obes (Lond). 2019 Apr;43(4):883-894

181 Eating attentively: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of food intake memory and awareness on eating. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Apr;97(4):728-42

182 Psychosocial Stress and Change in Weight Among US Adults. Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Jul 15; 170(2): 181–192

183 Impact of a stress management program on weight loss, mental health and lifestyle in adults with obesity: a randomized controlled trial. J Mol Biochem. 2018; 7(2): 78–84

184 Stress and Eating Behaviors. Minerva Endocrinol. 2013 Sep; 38(3): 255–267

185 How Credit Card Payments Increase Unhealthy Food Purchases: Visceral Regulation of Vices. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 38, No. 1 (June 2011), pp. 126-139

186 North American Retail Self-Checkout Systems Market Study 2007, IHL Consulting Group

187 https://www.theguardian.com/film/2012/oct/29/horror-movies-help-burn-calories

188 Slim by Design: Kitchen Counter Correlates of Obesity. Health Educ Behav. 2016 Oct;43(5):552-8

189 Understanding the Relationship Between Television Use and Unhealthy Eating : The Mediating Role of Fatalistic Views of Eating Well and Nutritional Knowledge. The International Journal of Communication and Health, January 2015

190 Healthy Reflections: The Influence of Mirror Induced Self-Awareness on Taste Perceptions. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, 1 (1), 2016

191 The Spread of Obesity in a Large Social Network over 32 Years. N Engl J Med 2007; 357:370-379

192 Social modeling of eating: a review of when and why social influence affects food intake and choice. Appetite. 2015 Mar;86:3-18

193 The social facilitation of eating. A review. Appetite, 86 (2015), pp. 61-73

194 Meal duration mediates the effect of “social facilitation” on eating in humans. Appetite, Volume 46, Issue 2, March 2006, Pages 189-198

195 Desire for weight loss, weight-related social contact, and body mass outcomes. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016 Jul;24(7):1434-7

196 Flexible Eating Behavior Predicts Greater Weight Loss Following a Diet and Exercise Intervention in Older Women. J Nutr Gerontol Geriatr. 2018 Jan-Mar;37(1):14-29

197 Mindfulness-based interventions for weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2018 Feb;19(2):164-177

198 Fast food restaurant lighting and music can reduce calorie intake and increase satisfaction. Psychol Rep. 2012 Aug;111(1):228-32

199 Physical order produces healthy choices, generosity, and conventionality, whereas disorder produces creativity. Psychol Sci. 2013 Sep;24(9):1860-7

200 An internet-based intervention with brief nurse support to manage obesity in primary care (POWeR+): a pragmatic, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2016 Oct;4(10):821-8

201 Chocolate cake. Guilt or celebration? Associations with healthy eating attitudes, perceived behavioural control, intentions and weight-loss. Appetite. 2014 Mar;74:48-54

202 Fattening Fasting: Hungry Grocery Shoppers Buy More Calories, Not More Food. JAMA Intern Med. 2013;173(12):1146-1148

203 2005 European Congress on Obesity, 4th June 2005

204 Eating less or more – Mindset induced changes in neural correlates of pre-meal planning. Appetite. 2018 Jun 1;125:492-501

205 Controlled trial of hypnotherapy for weight loss in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998 Mar;22(3):278-81

206 Effectiveness of hypnosis as an adjunct to behavioral weight management. J Clin Psychol. 1985 Jan;41(1):35-41

207 Hypnotic enhancement of cognitive-behavioral weight loss treatments–another meta-reanalysis. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1996 Jun;64(3):517-9

208 Cognitive and environmental interventions to encourage healthy eating: evidence-based recommendations for public health policy. Royal Society of Open Science, 30 October 2019 

209 Plate Size and Color Suggestibility: The Delboeuf Illusion’s Bias on Serving and Eating Behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, Volume 39, Issue 2, 1 August 2012, Pages 215–228

210 Boredom proneness and emotion regulation predict emotional eating. J Health Psychol 20(5):670–680

211 Emotional Ability Training and Mindful Eating. Journal of Marketing Research 52(1):105-119

212 The association between short sleep and obesity after controlling for demographic, lifestyle, work and health related factors. Sleep Med. 2013 Apr;14(4):319-23

213 National sleep foundation’s sleep time duration recommendations: Methodology and results summary. Sleep Health, 1(1), 40-43

214 Role of sleep timing in caloric intake and BMI. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011 Jul;19(7):1374-81

215 Effects of Experimental Sleep Restriction on Weight Gain, Caloric Intake, and Meal Timing in Healthy Adults. Sleep. 2013 Jul 1;36(7):981-990

216 Objectively measured sleep patterns in young adult women and the relationship to adiposity. 

217 Identification and Importance of Brown Adipose Tissue in Adult Humans. N Engl J Med 2009; 360:1509-1517

218 Temperature-acclimated brown adipose tissue modulates insulin sensitivity in humans. Diabetes. 2014 Nov;63(11):3686-98

219 Impact of circadian misalignment on energy metabolism during simulated nightshift work. PNAS December 2, 2014 111 (48) 17302-17307

220 Professor Gail Matthews Dominican University of California

221 Goal Setting and Task Performance: 1969 to 1980. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 90, No. 1, pp 125 – 152

222 Adherence to an overweight and obesity treatment: how to motivate a patient? PeerJ. 2014; 2: e495

223 Daily self-weighing and weight gain prevention: a longitudinal study of college-aged women. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, October 2017, Volume 40, Issue 5, pp 846–853

224 A Prospective Study of Weight Gain During the College Freshman and Sophomore Years. Prev Med. 2009 Mar; 48(3): 256–261

225 Comparing Self-Monitoring Strategies for Weight Loss in a Smartphone App: Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 2019; 7 (2): e12209

226 CHR Study Finds Keeping Food Diaries Doubles Weight Loss. Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, Jul 08 2008

227 Weight Loss During the Intensive Intervention Phase of the Weight-Loss Maintenance Trial. Am J Prev Med. 2008 Aug; 35(2): 118–126

228 Think before you eat: photographic food diaries as interventions to change dietary decision making and attitudes. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 32(6), 692–698

229 Does monitoring goal progress promote goal attainment? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence. Psychol Bull. 2016 Feb;142(2):198-229

230 Social embeddedness in an online weight management programme is linked to greater weight loss. J R Soc Interface. 2015 Mar 6;12(104):20140686

231 From Firm Muscles to Firm Willpower: Understanding the Role of Embodied Cognition in Self-Regulation. Journal of Consumer Research 37(6):1046-1046

232 Playing ‘Tetris’ reduces the strength, frequency and vividness of naturally occurring cravings. Appetite. 2014 May;76:161-5

233 Thinking about the long-term impact of your food choices may help control food cravings.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 4 November 2014

234 Frequency of consuming foods predicts changes in cravings for those foods during weight loss: The POUNDS Lost Study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2017 Aug; 25(8): 1343–1348

235 The effects of consuming frequent, higher protein meals on appetite and satiety during weight loss in overweight/obese men. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011 Apr;19(4):818-24

236 Effect of frequent interruptions of prolonged sitting on self-perceived levels of energy, mood, food cravings and cognitive function. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2016; 13: 113

237 Acute effects of brisk walking on sugary snack cravings in overweight people, affect and responses to a manipulated stress situation and to a sugary snack cue: a crossover study. PLoS One. 2015 Mar 11;10(3)

238 The color red reduces snack food and soft drink intake. Appetite. 2012 Apr;58(2):699-702

239 Pictures of disgusting foods and disgusted facial expressions suppress the tongue motor cortex. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2017 Feb 1;12(2):352-362

240 Satiation from sensory simulation: Evaluating foods decreases enjoyment of similar foods. Journal of Consumer Psychology Volume 24, Issue 2, April 2014, Pages 188-194

241 Thinking about the long-term impact of your food choices may help control food cravings. ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 4 November 2014

242 Mental Simulation as Substitute for Experience. Social and Personality Psychology Compass 10/7 (2016), 405–420

243 Mindfulness meditation as an intervention for binge eating, emotional eating, and weight loss: A systematic review. Eating Behaviors, Volume 15, Issue 2, April 2014, Pages 197-204

244 Development of the Highly Processed Food Withdrawal Scale. Appetite. 2018 Dec 1;131:148-154

245 The effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise training on fat loss and fasting insulin levels of young women. International Journal of Obesity (2008) 32, 684–691

246 High-Intensity Interval Resistance Training (HIRT) influences resting energy expenditure and respiratory ratio in non-dieting individuals. J Transl Med. 2012 Nov 24;10:237

247 Effect of walking exercise on abdominal fat, insulin resistance and serum cytokines in obese women. J Exerc Nutrition Biochem. 2014 Sep;18(3):277-85

248 Dose-response effect of walking exercise on weight loss. How much is enough? Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002 Nov;26(11):1484-93

249 Walking just after a meal seems to be more effective for weight loss than waiting for one hour to walk after a meal. Int J Gen Med. 2011; 4: 447–450

250 Commuting by Car – Weight Gain Among Physically Active Adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 44, Issue 2, 169 – 173

251 How Is the Practice of Yoga Related to Weight Status? Population-Based Findings From Project EAT-IV. J Phys Act Health. 2017 Dec 1;14(12):905-912

252 Yoga in Women With Abdominal Obesity— a Randomized Controlled Trial. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2016 Sep; 113(39): 645–652

253 Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial of Yoga in the Treatment of Eating Disorders. J Adolesc Health. 2010 Apr; 46(4): 346–351

254 Yoga as a treatment for binge eating disorder: a preliminary study. Complement Ther Med. 2009 Aug;17(4):196-202

255 Adiponectin, Interleukin-6, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Are Modified by a Short-Term Yoga-Based Lifestyle Intervention in Overweight and Obese Men. J Altern Complement Med. 2013 May;19(5):397-402

256 The Energy Expenditure of Stair Climbing One Step and Two Steps at a Time: Estimations from Measures of Heart Rate. PLoS One. 2012; 7(12): e51213

257 The effects of exercise session timing on weight loss and components of energy balance: midwest exercise trial 2. Int J Obes (Lond). 2019 Jul 9

258 The Metabolic Cost of Slow Graded Treadmill Walking With a Weighted Vest in Untrained Females. 2-14-2014

259 Received social support and exercising: An intervention study to test the enabling hypothesis. Br J Health Psychol. 2015 Nov;20(4):763-76

260 Dog owners are more likely to meet physical activity guidelines than people without a dog: An investigation of the association between dog ownership and physical activity levels in a UK community. Sci Rep. 2019 Apr 18;9(1):5704

261 Exposure to household furry pets influences the gut microbiota of infant at 3–4 months following various birth scenarios. Microbiome, 2017; 5 (1)

262 Energy expenditure during sexual activity in young healthy couples. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 24;8(10):e79342

263 How dieting makes the lean fatter: from a perspective of body composition autoregulation through adipostats and proteinstats awaiting discovery. Obes Rev. 2015 Feb;16 Suppl 1:25-35

264 Alternate Day Fasting Improves Physiological and Molecular Markers of Aging in Healthy, Non-obese Humans. Cell Metabolism, Clinical and Translational Report, Vol 30, Issue 3, pp 462-476, September 03, 2019

265 Comparison of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet with a standard low-calorie diet in the treatment of obesity. Endocrine. 2014 Dec;47(3):793-805

266 Association between the prevalence of obesity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet: the ATTICA study. Nutrition. 2006 May;22(5):449-56

267 The Mediet Project. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2002 Jun;963:282-9

268 Efficacy of and Patient Compliance with a Ketogenic Diet in Adults with Intractable Epilepsy: A Meta-Analysis. J Clin Neurol. 2015 Jan; 11(1): 26–31

269 Weight Loss with a Low-Carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or Low-Fat Diet. N Engl J Med 2008; 359:229-241

270 Dynamics of intrapericardial and extrapericardial fat tissues during long-term, dietary-induced, moderate weight loss. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Oct;106(4):984-995

271 Effects of a short-term intervention with a paleolithic diet in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 May;62(5):682-5

272 Long-term effects of a Palaeolithic-type diet in obese postmenopausal women: a 2-year randomized trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Mar;68(3):350-7

273 Timing and Intensity of Light Correlate with Body Weight in Adults. PLoS ONE, 2014; 9 (4): e92251

274 Effects of short-term carbohydrate or fat overfeeding on energy expenditure and plasma leptin concentrations in healthy female subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Nov;24(11):1413-8

275 A systematic review of financial incentives for dietary behavior change. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014 Jul;114(7):1023-35

276 Acupuncture for obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009 Feb;33(2):183-96

277 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. Chemical Hazard Data Availability Study: What Do We Really Know About the Safety of High Production Volume Chemicals?

278 Every breath we take: The lifelong impact of air pollution, February 2016. Royal College of Physicians and Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health

279 2013 assessment by the World Health Organisation’s International Agency for Research on Cancer

280 Ambient air pollution and overweight and obesity in school-aged children in Barcelona, Spain. Environ Int. 2019 Apr;125:58-64

281 Ultrafine particle deposition in humans during rest and exercise. Inhal Toxicol 2003;15:539-52

282 ACC Latin America Conference 2019, Cartagena, Colombia, July 25, 2019 – July 27, 2019

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on pinterest
Share on email
Share on print

About edge.unplugged

Hi, I’m James. I have a PhD in nutritional sciences and one of my biggest passions in life is nutrition. In fact, I’ve spent over 23 years studying it.

I wanted to create a site where I could help readers live a healthy and nutritious life. We control our destiny and we can choose to live a long and healthy life by treating our bodies with respect.

If that sounds like hard work, it shouldn’t. I’m only interested in simple, science-backed nutrition hacks that actually work.

You won’t find any fads here. Just easy to follow tips that give real-world results for people like you and me. 

Guides